• STOCK MARKET SYSTEM Top five largest stock exchanges ( on the basis of market capitalisation ) of the world in their decreasing order are – the NewYork Stock Exchange, the NASDAQ, the Tokyo Stock Exchange, the London Stock Exchange and Bombay Stock Exchange. Trading in stock exchanges takes place via the mediators known as the brokers, the jobbers, the market-maker.

    World’s first stock exchange was established in Antwerp, Belgium ( then part of the Netherlands ) in 1631, the London stock Exchange opened in 1773 and then Philadelphia Stock exchange ( the first in the New World) opened in 1790. The first stock exchange in India, the Bombay Stock Exchange.opened in 1790. The first stock exchange in India, the Bombay Stock Exchange.

    A share being directly purchased by anybody from the issuer which may be the company itself. The person is known as the primary share holder. The market where the instruments of security market are traded among the primary instrument holders is known as the secondary market. Such transactions need an institutionalised floor for their trading which is made available by stock exchanges.

    Bear and Bull- A person who speculates share prices to fall in future and so sells his shares and earn profits is a bear. He earns profit out of a falling market. Basically, he is short selling the shares.

    Opposite to bear, bull is a person who speculates share prices to go up in future so either shop selling the select group of shares for that time to be reached. ( he is basically taking long position on those shares)

    Thus, a bear increases the number of shares in a stock market activating a general fall in the index- a bearish market. Opposite to it, a bull creates a scarcity of shares in the stock market activating a general rise in the share prices and the index – a bullish market.

    SME Exchange is a stock exchange dedicated for trading the shares of small and medium scale enterprises ( SMEs ) who, otherwise, find it difficult to get listed in the main exchanges.

    The concepts originated from the difficulties faced by SMEs in gaining visibility or attracting sufficient trading volumes when listed along with other stocks in the main exchanges.

    Broker is a registered member of a stock exchange who buys or sells shares / securities on his client’s behalf and charges a commission on the gross value of the deal-such brockers are also known as commission brokers.

    Brokers who offer services such as investment advice, clients’ portfolio planning, credit when a client is buying on margin other than their traditional commission job are known as full service brokers.

    Jobber is a broker’s broker or one who specialises in specific securities catering to the need of other brokers. In London Stock Exchange he is called a market-maker while in the New York Stock Exchange he is called a Specialist.

  • “CHINA” HISTORY – IN SHORT

    China has either been a single monarchy or multiple divided monarchies throughout its entire history up until the 19th century.

    From small farming communities rose dynasties such as the Zhou(1046-256 BCE ) and Ming ( 1368-1644 CE ). Each had its own contribution to the region.Thousands of archeological findings are in the Huang He ( Yellow river ) , Henan Valley – the apparent cradle of chinese civilization- provide evidence about the Shang dynasty , which endured roughly from 1700 to 1027 BCE. The first prehistoric dynasty is said to be Xia, from about the twenty-first to the sixteenth century B.C.

    The next period marked an evolutionary stage between the late neolithic cultures that followed the settlement of nomadic tribes in the fertile valley of the yellow river and the subsequent first chinese urban civilization of the Shang dynasty.

    Quing Dynasty ruled China from 1644 to 1912. There were dozens of various rebellion arising in Qin dynasty in the 1800s, these were really devastating. .

    Opium wars with Britain(1839-1842)and(1856-1861)

    The first Opium war , British took over Hong Kong and extracted trade concessions from China . They also established British sovereignty over the trading centers . China was coerced into giving up the opposition to trade with the West . Major ports of China were opened to British trade and residence . Free trade was imposed on China . This meant that British could trade with any Chinese trader and custom duties were reduced . Also , a British diplomat was permanently stationed in China . British citizens in China could only be prosecuted under the British law .

    Between the two Opium wars , other European nations and USA also signed trade agreements with China but the former desired more favorable treaties , which led to the second Opium war .After the second Opium War , the trade treaties were revised . Even more Chinese ports were opened for trade . The European ships got rights of transit in Chinese rivers and Europeans could freely travel across China . China was made to guarantee security of life of Missionaries and the latter were given right to establish Churches anywhere in China . Ironically along with all this religiosity import into China , the Opium trade was also legalized .

    After the second Opium War , many more European nations , some South American nations and Japan established trade relations with China . Thus , China was opened up with different imperialist powers gradually establishing their Spheres of Influences in China .

    Boxer rebellion ( 1899 – 1900 )

    By 1900 , China was divided into spheres of influences ( thus China was reduced to a status of International colony ) . It was felt that it would soon be partitioned , with each Imperial power ruling its sphere of influence . The rebellion was against foreign interference in political , economic and religious affairs and was crushed by a joint Anglo – German – Russian – French – Japanese – American force . The Empress was forced to pay massive compensation for damage to the foreign property in China .

    Boxer Protocol , signed thereafter , allowed foreign powers to station their troops for protection of their citizens in China . After the treaty , Russia continued to occupy all of Manchuria .

    Quing Dynasty ruled China from 1644 to 1912.

    There were dozens of various rebellion arising in Qin dynasty in the 1800s, these were really devastating. Taiping rebellion for example had as many causalities as world war I.

    Taiping Rebellion ( 1899-1901 ).

    Occurred 20-30 Million death in this revolt . It was a religious as well as a political movement , with an aim to setup a heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace through armed rebellion against the Manchu dynasty. Christian Taiping rebels demanded shared ” property in common,” equality for women, and the replacement of Confucianism, Buddhism and Chinese folk religion with their form of Christianity.

    Out of the 1800s was so bad for China that later historians would call the period from 1839 onwards as the century of humiliation. Socially the Qin Dynasty was hated too as the ruling class were Manchurians who were made distinguished from the other populations within China such as the Han Chinese. The Mongols, the Tibetans, the weavers and so on all male subjects were even required by law to wear a Cue hairstyle which was immensely unpopular because traditional Chinese philosophy and ideals aborted not cutting your at all which is why the Chinese often wore their hair into buns before hand.

    Qing Dynasty rule had

    -Weakened central power.

    -Could not Modernize China

    -There was influence of western imperialist powers.

    -Rising Japan was a threat to dynasty.

    -Aristocratic-archaic rules

    The people were not happy by any stretch of the imagination yet Qin Dynasty was still there kind of hard to really have an idea for mandate of heaven if despite everything that’s happened there’s no new dynasty coming in to save the day well that made the idea of a popular revolt for a republic much more popular one such proponent was soon yatch’s in who had envisioned a Chinese republic.

    Russo-Japan War ( 1904 – 1905 ) : It was fought over Manchuria. Japan won this war and took over Russian possessions in China. Thus more Chinese territory came under Japan’s control.KMT fought a Civil war with Chinese Communist Party which emerged victorious by 1949, establishing a communist form of government in China while Chiang Kai Shek fled to Taiwan operating a government in exile.

    Dr. Sun Yatsen lead the Chinese revolution in 1911 which ended the Qing dynasty’s rule. China became the republic of China ( ROC ) in 1911.

    3 principles of Dr.Sun Yat-sen was –

    >>>>Nationalism.

    >>>>Rights of people/Democracy.

    >>>>-People’s livelihood/socialism.

    October 10, 1911 : Start of the Xinhai Revolution.

    >In October 1911, united efforts of anti-monarchists and reformists and reformists led to overthrow of dynastic rule. Also known as Xinhai revolution.

    >In October of 1911 , a group of revolutionaries in Southern China led a successful revolt against the Quing Dynasty ,

    >The revolutionary alliance attempted seven or more different revolts against the Quing in the years leading up to the revolution , most of which originated in South China and all of which were ultimately stopped by the Quing army.

    >Foreign nations with investments in China remained neutral throughout the upheaval, though they were anxious to protect the treaty right they gained from the Quing through the first and second Opium war.

    >establishing in its place the republic of China and ending the imperial system.

    >Republic of China established.

    >A democratic national assembly with limited franchise.

    >Chinese Nationalist Party (Sun Yat-Sen) V/S Last emperor of Qing – Puyi.

    >61 year old emperor PUYI abdicated. Northern China (Beijing) power came in hands of general Yuan Shikai and Southern China (Nanking) came under the provisional govt. under Dr. Sun Yat-Sen.

    >Sun left presidency and handed power to Yuan in order to unite China. Yuvan Shikai became the president of Republic of China.

    Chinese revolution made China a republic from the 2000 years of rules of kings of different dynasties.

    Nationalist party ( Kuo Min Tang , KMT ) was founded in 1912 by Dr. Sun Yat Sen, who had returned to China after the 1911 revolution. It wanted a united, democratic and modern China.

    But Yuvaan Shikai soon became an autocratic leader.

    1915- Declared himself as emperor. ( Known The Hongxian emperor ) and started National Protection War in (1915-1916).

    Expelled KMT from govt/national assembly.

    Chaos ensues – fragmentation of power and not a unified China.

    Further, when Yuan declared himself to be the Emperor in 1915 against the wishes of provincial armies, he was removed from power and the Warlord era began ( 1916 – 28 ).

    1916-Shikai dead

    Warlord Era in China ( 1916-1928 )

    During this time China disintegrated in numerous states, each controlled by a Warlord with a private army, who fought among themselves.

    The warlord era created chaos in China and the farmers suffered the most hardships.

    May 4th Movement ( 1919 ) :

    was a movement started by the Chinese youth against the warlords and the regressive Chinese culture. Students gathered and held mass demonstrations. The Chinese Communist Party was formed in 1912 and it was sympathetic to the cause of peasants, who were the most oppressed section of the society under Warlord era.

    Simultaneously, KMT was strengthening itself militarily under Chiang Kai Shek and was successful in ending the rule of Warlords and uniting the country by end of 1927-28.The KMT was opposed to the communist ideology of Chinese Communist Party, which focused on peasant welfare through measures like land redistribution, while the KMT was pro-landlords. Also by 1927, KMT, being militarily stronger, was able to suppress the communists.

    After Sun’s death in 1925 by cancer , his trusted general , Chiang Kai-shek ( General Issimo Chiang Kai-Shek ) rose to prominence in KMT.

    Chiang Kai Shek : After 1925 , it was Chiang Kai Shek , militarily trained man , who was responsible for developing the KMT Army with the Soviet help . Although he studied the working of Communist Party and Red Army of Soviet Russia , he had a right wing ideology and was pro – capitalist class .

    Northern March ( 1926 ) — a military campaign by KMT and Chinese Communist party against the Warlords.Successful military campaign against the warlords of the North , to unify China.Successful campaign helped him rise in prominence and stature in KMT.

    But Chiang Kai-Shek became an autocrat and started acting against the Communist Party under Mao Zedong. The Communist Party under Mao arranged the long march and strengthened the party in China. The CPC was supported by the peasants and poor.

    He removed all the communist members from the KMT in 1925 and thus , was less tolerant than his predecessor Sun Yat Sen.

    In 1927, after its win against the Warlords, the KMT initiated the purification Movement, which was KMT’s campaign against the Chinese Communist Party during which worker and peasant leaders as well as Chinese Communist Party members were massacred. In fact, the Chinese Communist Party was to a good extent eliminated.

    Chinese Civil War ( (1927-1949) :

    The CPC was trying to start a socialist revolution in areas where it was dominant ( Shanghai, Wuhan )

    After the second world war, the Chinese civil war started and the Kuomintang government retreated to Taiwan and communist party under Mao, established the People’s republic of China ( PRC). KMT government continued its rule from Taiwan. Till today, Taiwan is ruled as the republic of China.

    Cultural Revolution

    This known as the Great Cultural Revolution. It was more a propaganda campaign launched by Mao to renew revolutionary fervour in his quest for saving the communist revolution, for mobilizing public support in favour of the Great leap forward and for keeping the GLF on pure Marxist-Leninist lines.

    Great Leap forward

    Great leap forward was Mao’s reformations with support of young energetic communists.

    The efforts began to reap benefits and agricultural and industrial production increased significantly in the long term.The GLF, through its of communes prevented over-central that stifles initiative. Communes were much more than simple tool for collective farming.

    GLF was able to check unemployment due to the scattered and labour inten industrial model.

    Spread of education, improved status of women, better welfare services, some other benefits of the GLF. Maoism manifested in the form of the Great Leap Forward initiated by Mao after the criticism he faced during the 100 flowers campaign. During 100 flowers campaign initiated to allow people to elicit their views, many people began to criticize the party and demanded transition to a democracy. Mao realized that he needed to take steps to protect the communist revolution and increase economic prosperity of the common map to route their belief in Communism.

    Evaluation of Great Leap Forward in the long term, the GLF proved to be an important milestone for China.

  • Colonialism

    Empire, imperialism and Colonialism are all interrelated tactics of geopolitics that are used to achieve similar goals of one state maintaining economic, political, or cultural dominance over other territories, often for economic gain.

    Colonialism can be defined as – the establishment, exploitation, maintenance, acquisition, and expansion of colonies in one territory by people from another territory. It is a set of unequal relationships between the colonial power and the colony, and often between the colonists and the indigenous population.

    An empire forms when a single authority controls multiple territories, states, and countries. There are several ways an empire can function ranging from intrusive to rather hands off.

    But when an empire also creates unequal economic or power relationships, that relationship is considered imperialism through this relationship can eventually be more hands off too.

    In early 21st century, when we talk about colonialism, we’re often referring to European Colonialism, which happened globally between the 15th century to the present.

    Imperialism and Colonialism do have really similar definitions-in fact, they’re still debated within geography and other disciplines.

    The Chinese, Japanese, and Mongols built vast empires too. In this case, we talk about imperialism because of the way each expanded through force, and each had elements of extraction of resources and control of local politics. We fed the impacts of colonialism and imperialism around us in almost all places in the world, even though many of those systems have been formally ended.

    Imperialism describes the domination and subordination of one state over others, and is often motivated by the acquisition of land, resources, or strategic positions. From this, we can look at different types of colonization, which is either a type of imperialism or just another type of empire.

    Colonization starting ;

    The explorations or the voyages of Discovery at the end of 15th century, clubbed with the end of Feudalism played an important role in the rise of Colonialism. As early as the 13th century, Marco Polo of Italy discovered China.

    Technical innovations in 15th century played an important role in success of explorers in being able to sail to the new lands. By the end of 15th century, innovations in form of compass, Astrolabe, the art of Mapping and development of better ships enabled explorers to safely reach new lands.The new founded lands were rich in mineral resources and many had very good natural harbors which could be developed into ports that could serve as nodal points of trade.

    The monetary profit became the most important reason for explorations, which brought goods that could be sold at home at a much higher margin. E.g. Vasco Da Gama (1498) found the price of pepper in India to be 1/20th of the price in Venice. Spice trade was the most lucrative. By mid 13th century, Venice emerged as the primary trade port for spices. From Venice, the spices were transported to Western and Northern Europe. Venice became extremely prosperous by charging huge tariffs.

    Geography played an important role. Without direct access to Middle east, the Europeans were forced to pay high prices charged by Venice. Even the wealthy had trouble paying for spices. The routes to the east were known by the name Silk Routes. Along with Venice, it was the Byzantine Empire with its capital in Constantinople, which acted as a middle man in this trade with east. These two lay along the trade routes and had power to choke them if they wanted. In 1453, Ottoman Empire defeated the Byzantine Empire and choked/blockaded the sea routes.

    The European merchants sought to establish their set up in new founded lands . i.e. they started to form colonies in these new found lands. Thus came into origin, the word colonization. The colonization of Asia, Africa and America began with three focuses- Gold, Glory and God. While Gold represented the profits from trade, Glory represented the recognition a European power received as a world hegemon. With the flag of the kingdom came the missionaries to promote Christianity.

    The profits from trade increased the attraction of the European ports and the merchants made the ports their center of activity . Soon towns developed in coastal areas of the Mediterranean sea and places like Venice & Genoa increased in prosperity . These coastal towns enjoyed freedom from the rural based system of Feudalism . The serfs were free in these towns and thus migration from the villages to the towns gained pace . The society in these coastal towns was based on money and not land . The Kings , who in the Feudal system were dependent on the

    The Portuguese had established trade monopoly with Asia after discovery of trade route to India via Cape of Good Hope in 1498 and thus replaced Italian monopoly on trade with the east .

    Europe started importing products like spices , which were new to its market and became very popular . Similar was the case with cotton cloth imported from the east .

    The Portuguese were replaced by the Dutch in Indonesia and by the British in India . Afterwards , the military strength and the sea power aided France and Britain to emerge as the major colonial powers .

    Spain setup sugar plantations in Central American colonies , while the Portugal put up the plantation system in Brazil .

    Countries like Holland , which were barren internally made huge profits out of the colonies by providing ships for commerce to Britain and other European countries . On the other hand , the impact of colonialism on the colonies was appalling .

    Impact of Colonialism

    Early before European Colonialism the Chinese, Japanese, and Mongols built vast empires too.Here implies settlement of people in an area, and a degree of cultural control in addition to control of land and resources, which kind of sounds like “Imperialism plus”. The Mongol empire consolidated a huge chunk of Central Asia, and even though the territory has changed hands many times, it’s still more or less together.Today that land makes up much of what’s now Russia and Mongolia.

    On one hand , the European countries saw very rapid increase in trade volume and diversity , while on the other hand , the colonies were ripped off their resources .

    South America was colonized by Spain after the Amerigo’s voyage , which it had funded .

    The civilization of Aztecs and the Incas were destroyed and their gold and silver plundered . The indigenous Americans were forced to work for the colonists in the mines and farms .

    The mines of Peru , Bolivia and Mexico were exploited with all the wealth exported out to Spain .

    Later , the Dutch , the British and the French also came to control parts of America .

    The objective of Colonialism in Asia was trade profit , while Slave Trade was the main reason in case of Africa .

    In Africa , colonization began early but was limited to the coastal region because the hindrances placed by the geography limited the expansion of colonial empire to the mainland Africa .

    Slave trade was started by the Portugal as its workers on the plantations were not able to bear the hot and humid climate of Brazil. It hunted down the Black Africans who were physically strong and were used to living in an equatorial climate and brought them to work on plantations. While the Africans worked on the plantations as slaves, the native Americans worked like serfs on the estate of colonies.

    Soon the slave trade was introduced in North America, West Indies and other parts of America by European powers after colonization. Spain introduced the slave trade first in Haiti in the Caribbean and then in Florida, Mexico, Chile and other parts of Coastal South America.

    The plantation system was mainly put up for production of Sugarcane, tobacco and cotton. The slave trade came to be known as the Trans-Atlantic Slave trade and the Triangular Slave Trade as a tripod of America. The slave trade continued for 300 years.

    ( Stages of Colonialism can be concluded into three stages as shown under : )

    ( First Stage ) ;- Monopoly trade and revenue appropriation

    During the first stage of Colonialism the basic objections of Colonialism were:

    (1) The monopoly of trade with the colony vis-à-vis other European merchants and the Colony’s traders and producers , and

    (2) the direct appropriation of revenue or surplus through the use of state power. Whenever craftsman or other producers were employed on account of the Colonial States , Corporation or merchants, their surplus was directly seized, not in the manner of industrial capitalists but that of merchant-usurers.

    The Colonial state or corporations required large financial resources to wage wars in the colony and on the seas, and to maintain naval forces, forts, armies and trading posts.

    It is to be noted that during the first stage of colonialism

    (1) the element of plunder and direct seizure of surplus was very strong and

    (2) there was no significant import of metropolitan manufacturers into the colony.

    ( Second Stage ) ; – Exploitation through trade

    1. The colony could buy more imports only if it increased its exports-which could only be of agricultural and mineral products-to pay for them. The colony’s export had also to pay for the drain or in other words had to earn foreign exchange to provide for the export of business profits and the savings and pensions of Europeans working there.

    2. The metropolis desired to lessen the dependence on non-empire sources of raw materials and food stuffs. Hence the need to promote the production of raw materials in the colony, which the colonial rule must enable the colony to do so. The colony had to be developed as a productive colony in the agricultural and mineral spheres.

    3. As a subordinated complement of a capitalist economy , the use of the colony, both as a market for goods and as a supplier of raw materials and manufacturers. The colony’s social surplus was to be appropriated through trade on the basis of selling cheap and buying cheap. This stage of Colonialism could even embrace countries which retained political freedom.

    ( Third Stage ) ; – Foreign Investments and competition for colonies.

    The Europeans established trading posts in the coastal areas of the new found lands .It is to be noted here that the country which dominated in the realm of sea power was able to benefit from the most out of the Colonial era. The policy of Mercantile capitalism involved attacking merchant vessels of other kingdoms , blocking trade routes , setting up colonies , placing trade barriers , monopolizing the trade with the colonies and if unable to colonize , then securing special trading rights with the new found lands so as to have a trade monopoly .

    A larger fleet of merchant ships was a mark of trade volume and spread across external markets while a strong navy could protect them, attack the vessels of the competitors and block the sea-routes of commerce. The country which was able to have friendly harbors along the trade route in form of Ports of call where the ships could refuel and the crew could rest, had an advantage in the trade competition.

  • History of War of American Independence

    The American revolutionary war happened in the years from 1765 to 1783. It was a colonial revolt for independence from Great Britain .

    In North America, British people had established 13 colonies on the West Coast of ocean. After the Seven Year war, the influence of the French in America was ended. While the British Mercantilism or Mercantile capitalism created an environment of resentment among the white Americans, the Seven Year War created conditions, which became the immediate trigger for the War of American Independence.



    Whenever Britain needed Money they’d imposed tax. Tax on Paper , Tea ,Oil etc.

    In the year 1764 – BRITAIN Introduced Sugar Act. Forcing the Colonies to import Sugar exclusively from Britain and pay duties on them .The Sugar Act also imposed new taxes on other imported products, like wine, coffee, and fabric, and strictly regulated the export of lumber and iron, than the foremost demanded commodities produced within the colonies

    Later in March 22, 1765 came stamp act .When Britain passed the stamp act , imposing a tax on legal documents, newspapers, even playing cards, this was the primary taxation on the American colonists , and is hotly resisted. A successful American campaign to own the act repealed gave Americans confidence that they’ll avoid future taxes likewise.

    Members of American colonial society argued the position of ” No taxation without representation ” starting with the Stamp Act congress in 1765. they rejected the authority of the British parliament to tax them because they lacked members in the governing body.

    Protests steadily escalated to the Boston Massacre in 1770 and the burning of the Gaspee Rhode island in 1772.( Gaspee affair 1772.)

    700 troops marched from Boston to Massachusets by order of British Major to fight patriots.

    Tea act of 1773 had forced colonies to shop for tea exclusively from East Indian tea company and taxed on tea. December 16th 1773 happened a rebellion called Boston party, during which patriots destroyed a consignment of taxed tea, throwing to sea. British troops back fired to Boston by the Locals.

    British people responded by closing port, ( Boston port Act : Closed the port of Boston until Boston agreed to pay the East Indian company for the Dar-mouth Cargo. Boston wouldn’t import any foreign goods or export to other nations.)

    Then followed with a series of legislative acts which effectively rescinded Massachusetts Bay colony’s rights of self-government and caused the opposite colonies to rally behind Massachusetts in late 1774.(Massachusetts Government Act : Members of the legislature were to be appointed by the king rather than being popularly elected. This was by revoking the Massachusetts charter of 1691. Forbade town meetings that the governor had not given permissions.)

    Administration of justice Act : No royal official committing a law-breaking can be trialed in Massachusetts. Made it more likely that soldiers would flee with violence against citizens.

    Administration of justice Act : No royal official committing a capital offense could be trialed in Massachusetts. Made it more likely that soldiers would get away with violence against citizens.

    Quartering Act : Colonists must provide food and housing for British soldiers on demand. Robbed citizens of the right to privacy and security in their own homes.

    Quebec Act : Passed later in 1774. Changed the system of government for Canada ; disbanded representative assembly and revoked the right to trial by jury.

    The patriots set up their own alternate government to better co-ordinate their resistance efforts against great Britain ; other colonists preferred to remain aligned to the crown and were known as Loyalists or Tories. First continental congress held on 5th September to 26th October (1774 ).

    Tensions erupted into battle between Patriot militia and British regulars when the king’s army attempted to capture and destroy colonial military supplies at Lexington and concord on April 19, 1775. The conflict then developed into a global war, during which the patriots ( and later their French , Spanish and Dutch allies ) fought the British and loyalists in what became known as the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783) . Each of the thirteen colonies formed a provincial congress that assumed power from the old Colonial governments and suppressed Loyalism, and from there they built a continental Army under the leadership of General George Washington .

    April 19, 1775
    The first shots of the Revolutionary War were fired at Lexington and Concord in Massachusetts. The news of the bloodshed rockets along the eastern seaboard, and thousands of volunteers converge—called “Minute Men”—on Cambridge, Mass. These are the beginnings of the Continental Army.

    Washington took command of the American army, on 3rd July 1775.

    The continental army forced the redcoats out of Boston in march 1776, but that summer the British captured and held Newyork City and its strategic harbor for the duration of the war.

    The continental congress determined King George’s rule to be tyrannical and infringing the colonists’ rights as Englishmen , and they declared the colonies free and independent states on July 2 , 1776.

    The patriot leadership professed the political philosophies of liberalism and republicanism to reject monarchy and aristocracy, and they proclaimed that all men are created equal.

    July 1776

    In July 4, 1776 States of America formed.
    The Declaration of Independence is adopted by the Second Continental Congress. Following a decade of agitation over taxes and a year of war, representatives make the break with Britain. King George III isn’t willing to let his subjects go without a fight, and loyalist sentiment remains strong in many areas. Americans’ primary allegiance is to their states; nationalism will grow slowly.

    American Constitution starts with We the People. There are three regions British Canada, Under Spain , and region under USA.

    George Washington , addressing the continental army , August 27,1776. – “The time is now near at hand which must probably determine whether American are to be freemen or slaves ; whether they are to have any property they can call their own ; whether their houses and farms are to be pillaged and destroyed , and themselves consigned to a state of wretchedness from which no human efforts will deliver them. The fate of unborn millions will now depend , under God, on the courage and conduct of this army. Our cruel and unrelenting enemy leaves as only the choice of brave resistance , or the object submission. We have , therefore , to resolve to conquer or die. “

    The patriots unsuccessfully attempted to invade Canada during the winter of 1775-76, but successfully captured a British army at the battle of Saratoga in October, 1777,and the French entered the war as allies of the United states as a result. (Battle of Saratoga : American side 90 killed. British side 440 killed.)

    .

    Battle of Saratoga: Britsh Setback

    October 17, 1777
    General John Burgoyne’s attempt to separate the rebellious New England colonies from those farther south ends in a spectacular failure. The surrender of 6,000 British regulars at Saratoga will shock London and help induce France to enter the war on the American side.

    The war later turned to the American South were the British under leadership of Charles Cornwallis captured an army at Charleston, South Carolina in early 1780 but failed to enlist enough volunteers from loyalists civilians to take effective control of the territory while fighting patrisons. A combined American-French force captured a second British Army at Yorktown in the fall of 1781, effectively ending the war in North America.

    The treaty of Paris , signed September 3, 1783, formally ended the conflict, confirming the new nation’s complete separation from the British Empire. Treaty of Paris in 1783.
    Then Colony Under direct rule of Britain,

    The united states took possession of nearly all the territory east of the Mississippi river and south of the great lakes, with the British retaining control of Canada and Spain taking Florida.

    Among the significant results of the revolution was the creation of a new constitution of the United States of America. The new constitution established a relatively strong federal national government that included an executive , a national judiciary , and a bicameral congress that represented states in the senate and the population in the house of representatives. The revolution also resulted in the migration of around 60000 loyalists to other British territories, especially British North America ( Canada ).

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  • On the morning of July 1789 French Paris there was an atmosphere of terror. Rumors were spreading in French. The King of France wants to open fire on people of France. And he wants his soldiers to kill the people. This news spread in the entire French like fire in petrol. There was an atmosphere of fear among the public regarding this news. People thought that it is better to be killed by doing something than to die like this.

    7000 men and women gathered in front of the Town hall. They discussed if we want to stand up and rebel against the king then we will need weapons for that. Why not forcefully loot the weapons kept in government buildings ? They looted from Bastille jail. Jail commandant – Bernard-Rene Jourdan de Launary.

    Why did this happen ?How did this happen ?France during late 18th century. Louis IV. King of Bourbon family at age 20 married Australian princess Mary Antonnette. In the time France had a debt of more than one billion libero and there was already a debt of 2 billion libero. So tax imposed to people increased in increased rate.

    18th century, France was divided into 3 estates.Three estates: The society of 18th century France was devided into three classes or estates.The clergy was the first estate, the Noble were the second estate and the third estate, which formed the majority of population, included the middle classes, the the artisans, the city workers and the peasants.

    1.Estate clergy ( people worked in Church ).

    2. Estate Nobility ( King and his family ).

    3. Remaining people ( businessmen, merchants, lawyer, farmer, labour etc.)

    90% of entire population of French were farmers. Even they are large in number they had no land. 60% of land with 2nd estate . Only rich people in 3rd state had land.

    The tax which went to the church by the farmers was called tithe. Tithe was the one tenth part of the crop. King imposed tax on tobacco, salt etc.

    1715 – 2.3 crore population of France.1789 – increased to 2.8 crore.

    Demand increased and scarcity in food and death due to starvation. Rich became more rich, poor became more poor.

    Revolt occured. In that time, people had became more Educated. They danded that the rights of the people should not be decided by their birth but on the basis of their merit in the society.

    John Locke -( English philosopher and physician ) Jacques Roussesau (Genevan philosopher, writer and composer ) were in front.

    They also believed that there should be such a society where everyone has freedom, equal laws for all and government should be such that it listens to the people. Later wrote book. Two features of government where the monarchy government was fiercely opposed. Outbreak of Revolution. The Estate general was a political body in which all the estates send their respective respresents live.

    Estate General decided that the new tax proposals had to be approved.

    Estate general last meeting was convened in 1614. Louis XVI called a meeting again on 5 May 1789 to increase the new taxes. In which 1st estate had 300 representatives, 2 nd estate – 300 representatives, and 3 rd estate – 600 representatives.

    Farmers and artisans were not allowed in this meeting. They send his complaints and demands in 4000 letters to the assembly. Each estate had 1 vote each – not every representative allowed to vote.

    3rd estate proposal to vote by every one did not accept by king. And all their people gathered in the indoor tennis court of Versailles on 20th June. Until we make a constitution in which the king has less power, we will continue to fight together. He declared himself a national assembly. National Assembly in which Mirabean – French , Abbe Sieyes – French Author were members. Meantime Death due to starvation increased. And on 14 July Bastille Jail revolt occured.

    On the night of 4 August 1789 National assembly passed an order in which the people of the first estate were ordered to return the land that you have taken in the name of the church.

    In France one-tenth part of the crop which is given as tax in the church, that is tithe. People demanded it should be stopped. The government got the benefit of 2 billion lives. Now gradually national assembly made a new constitution in 1791.

    Divided the government equally into three parts – Legislative, executive, Judiciary.

    L – who makes laws/rules. E- Who sees weather the law is being followed. J- Judiciary works for L.

    Following were the major ideas enlisted in the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen.

    >> All men are born free and equal.>>Equality before law.>>Principle of innocent until proven otherwise.>>All people were eligible to the public offices.>>Freedom of speech and press>>Right to private property unless the public welfare necessitates to infringe this right.>>The society has a right to demand accountability from each civil servant.>>The document gave the term nation its modern meaning ie. nation is sum total of the people residing in a territory and not the territory itself. From the idea of Nation followed the idea of Sovereignty of the people Thus people were the source of all power and authority and there can not be any ruler above the people but only a republic.

    The wars were fought from 1792 to 1802, by France, against the absolute monarchies of Austria, Prussia, and Savory ( Italian State) as the latter desired to protect their own hold on power from being eroded by ideas of liberty and equality.

    They are known as Revolutionary wars because France was trying to protect the revolution of 1789, which was under threat from neighbouring monarchies who were afraid of the French revolution spreading to their countries.

    The abolition of slavery after French revolution was the first move against this repressive system and Britain followed suit in 1833 while USA banned it in 1865.

    It led to destruction of Feudalism in France as all laws of oldIt led to destruction of Feudalism in France as all laws of old Feudal regime were repealed and lands of the nobles and church were confiscated and redistributed.

  • Types of Rocks

    Rock is an aggregate of minerals that forms an appreciable part of the lithosphere. On the basis of origin , and mode of formation.

    Rocks may be classified into : (i) igneous (ii) sedimentary and (ii) metamorphic.

    The rocks are formed mainly by minerals that are feldspars, micas, amphiboles, pyroxenes, olivine, quartz, calcite, dolomite, clays, and gypsum etc.

    Igeneous Rocks

    Igeneous Rocks : Rocks formed by the cooling and solidification of molten silicate minerals ( magma ). Igneous rocks include volcanic and plutonic rocks.

    Igneous rocks are classidied on the basis of texture and composition. The major kinds of igneous rocks are basalt, gabbro, andesite, diorite, rhyolite, and granite. Igneous rocks may also be classified under intrusive and extrusive rocks:

    Intrusive Igneous rocks :

    these are igneous rocks that, penetrated into or between other rocks in their fluid state and solidified. It can later be exposed at the Earth’s surface after erosion of the overlying rock.

    Extrusive Igneous Rocks :

    Rocks formed by solidification of magma above the Earth’s surface are known as extrusive rocks.

    Characteristics of Igneous Rocks are as under :

    >These rocks are solidified from molten magma.

    > They usually do not occur in distict beds of strata.

    >Igneous rocks are generally not fossiliferous.

    >They are generally hard and water percolatesin them with great difficulty along the joints.

    > Igneous rocks are granular and crystalline.The size of Crystals, however, differs from one rock to another.

    > These rocks are generally weathered by mechanical(physical) weathering.

    >Igneous rocks are mostly associated with the volcanic activity.

    >Most igneous rocks consist of silicate minerals.

    >The valuable minerals like iron-ore, copper, gold, silver, zinc, lead, mica, etc. are generally found in the igneous rocks.

    Sedimentary Rocks

    Rocks formed by the accumulation and consolidtion of sedimentnt are known as sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary rocks may be as following types:

    Agrilacous( Aqueous Rocks) Sedimentary Rocks

    A group of detrital sedimentary rocks deposited in water. They are commonly, clay, shale, mudstones, siltstone, and marl.

    Three typs of Agrillacous rock are Marine , Lacustrine , Riverine.

    Marine Agrillaceous sedimentary rocks

    are formed due to deposition and consolidation of sediments in the oceans and seas mainly in their littoral zones.

    Lacustrine Agrillaceous sedimentary rocks

    are formed due to deposition and consolidation of sediments in Lake Environment. Generally, the sediments are deposited at the floor of the lakes.

    Riverine Agrillaceous sedimentary rocks

    are those which are formed due to deposition of sediments in the riverine environment. The sediments may be deposited in the beds of the rivers and in the flood plains.

    Aeolian sedimentary rocks

    Aeolian processes create a number of distinct features, through both erosion and deposition of sediment.

    Sediments deposited after transported by wind are known as aeolian deposits. Loess is one of the most important aeolian deposits. The loess deposits are found away from the source region and outside the desert. The dust particles of loess are so small that they hold together even when dry and once deposited cannot be easily lifted by the wind.

    Glacial sedimentary rocks

    The sediments deposited by glaciers are called glacial sedimentary rocks. These deposits are also known as moraines.

    Characteristics of sedimentary rocks are as under

    >The material of sedimentary rocks is derived from the pre-existing rock of any of the three rock classes as well as from newly formed organic matter. However, igneous rock is the most important original source of the inorganic minerl matter that forms sedimentary rock.

    >The sedimentary rocks contain layers or strata. They are, therefore, often called stratified rocks.

    >The layers of the sedimentary rocks are sometimes horizontal, and sometimes tilted due to lateral compressive and tensile forces.

    >Sedimentary rocks are deposited in seas and oceans in a sequential order.

    Metamorphic Rock

    These rocks are formed from pre-existing rocks within the Earth’s crust due to changes in temperature, pressure and chemical action of fluid. The main examples of metamorphic rocks are slate, marble, quartzite, schist, and gneiss.

    Metamorphic rocks : The origin of common metamorphic rocks is complex. In some cases, such as quartzite, marble, and metaconglomerate, the nature of the original rocks is easily determined. In other cases, such as schist and gneiss, it is difficult and sometimes impossible to determine the type of source rock.

    Characteristics of metamorphic rocks are as under

    >Metamorphic rocks are formed due to change in texture and mineral composition of the pre-existing rocks.

    >Some rocks after metamorphism become more hard than their original form. For example, marble from limestone, quartzite from sandstone, and diamond from carbon.

    > The fossils of the original sedimentary rocks are destroyed and, therfore, they do not contain fossils.

    > The coarse-grained metamorphic rocks are imperfectly foliated, e.g. gneisses, from granites, while the fine-grained metamorphic rocks are perfectly foliated, e.g. schist from shale.

    >Many of the metamorphic rocks are impervious ( marble and slate ), and some of them are pervious, e.g. gneiss.

    > Many of the metamorphic rocks may slipt along the bedding planes, e.g., micaschist.

    >Most gneissic metamorphic rocks comprise bands of granular quartz and feldspar.

  • Industrial Revolution

    Transition to new manufacturing process in Great Britain , central Europe , and the United States occurred in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

    The main changes were in New chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, the increasing use of steam power and water power , the development of machine tools and in the rise of mechanized factory system.

    The economic developments of the 1800s saw the development of agrarian and handicraft economies in Europe and America , and transformed it into industrial urbanized ones .

    The term to describe this phenomenon would be known as the ” Industrial Revolution ” and was first used by French writers , but made popular by English economic historian Arnold Toynbee.

    Unprecedented rise in population and in the rate of population growth was the immidiate effect.

    Britain became a ‘ Workshop to the world ‘ – and made such a big difference to the modern world.

    The industrial revolution changed England and world forever.

    From the mid 18th century to the mid 19th century agricultural production increased significantly . The huge increase in farming supported the expansion and sustain the large population and boosted trade. The increased use of machines over humanely and animal power and farming also meant that less farm work needed and they would leads the farms to industrial towns.

    Factory System : Under this system, the centre of production shifted from home to factory. The workers, for the first time now, travelled from home to work-sites on daily basis. They for the first time aggregated in such large numbers under a shed working on machines. The capital was owned by the Capitalists and the worker was just another factor of production and the capitalist was the owner.

    The Revolution started with revolution in the textile industry, saw mechanization of textile industry, which was previously manufactured in the home, early the term “Cottage Industry”. Now production could be increased on a large scale because of new inventions, such as the spinning mule and the power loom.

    Steam Power : The most significant invention was development of Steam Engine by James Watt in 1769. Steam Engines gave a big boost to production of goods and consequently led to huge increase in demand for raw materials.

    Revolution in Iron production : Another revolution was in iron production. The iron industry developed with Henry bessemer’s inexpensive process for mass-producing steel.By the development of Blast furnaces, which allowed for use of coke instead of charcoal, this allowed the British steel industry to produce high-grade cast iron instead of just the pig iron. Iron and steel were key materials for constructing the tools in machinery, steam engines, and ships needed for the industrial progress. Ultimately led to increased and cheaper mechanization of all industrial processes. The steam power had led to demand for more machinery and England had huge deposits of iron and coal to make steal.

    The steam engine , was the integral machine to industrialization with powered factories, locomotives and ships. The new steam engines used coal and iron both in the construction and as fuel, increasing the demands for these recourses.

    Roads, canals and road ways changed dramatically connecting Britain and allowing goods to be sent over long distances.

    Visually the revolution was clear in the new industrial towns with smoking factories dominating the skylines. The cities were horrible to live in . Overcrowded , dirty, dangerous with factory conditions.

    It took place between about 1700 and 1900, and- so the simple explanation goes – it turned Britain into a tooled-up, factory -powered ‘ workshop of the world’. But there was plenty more to industrial revolution than just factories and machines.

    It certainly didn’t happen overnight , and its root go even further back than 1700.

    Many historians reckon the Industrial Revolution was not just one revolution , but a series of revolutions. A bit like a complicated machine : It had lots of different moving parts, and each of these parts was like its own revolution.

    New revolutionary technologies and inventions meant that products could be made by machines rather than by hands.

    Why Industrial Revolution first in England ? The events in England before 1750 set such conditions, which were favourable towards Industrial Revolution. The rise of capitalism after the end of Feudalism was crucial for industrial Revolution. This was so because with capitalism came the desire to make more monetary profits, which could be achieved by developing new ways to produce more goods at lower costs. There was demands for manufactured goods due to the new ways of life in the growing towns and cities.

    Moving outside of Britain

    Industrial labor opportunities drew people to the cities from the country side-

    To such an extent that in 1750 only 15% of the population of Britain lived in towns.

    By 1850, over 50% of the entire population of Great Britain lived in either a town or a city, and by 1900 it was 85%.London-4.5 million people,Glasgow-7,60,000 people,Manchester and Birmingham – 5,00,000 people each.

    Great Britain was the birth place of the industrial revolution, and was the only mature industrial economy for a long time. Historians have speculated that this was because as an island there was relative peace and stability for Britain compared to mainland Europe.

    Rather than spending on a large defensive standing army, capital could be spent on other ventures, and there was confidence for investors. Native resources were also respected and encouraged in British society, and were backed by wealthy patrons. A powerful navy and an empire bringing in vast wealth from its colonies also contributed to the catalyst for industrialization before others.

    Nevertheless Germany, France, Switzerland, Belgium, and the ‘United States’ soon emulated Britain’s industrial change, and by 1900 Britain would no longer be at the top, with the United States as the World’s leading industrial nation in the 20th century.

    The Slave Trades and Effects

    The slave trade and the expansion of Britain’s colonies in the Americas also played a part in the Industrial Revolution.

    British traders sold manufactured goods in West Africa , in return for enslaved Africans.

    They were transported across the Atlantic to work on plantations that grew sugar and tobacco , and these were exported back to Britain.

    This ‘ triangular trade ‘ fueled manufacturing in Britain and created enormous profits for wealthy Brits, with some of that money helping to fund new inventions, new infrastructure and new country houses.

    But its important to remember that some of the money invested in industry came directly from a system that destroyed the lives of millions of African people , and impoverished Africa for generations to come.

    Britain did abolish slavery in its own colonies in 1834, but even by 1860, England’s massive cotton textile industry was entirely reliant on cotton produced by 3 million enslaved Africans in the American South.

    After effects of Industrial Revolution.

    But the gap between rich and the poor widened, and quality of life didn’t improve for everyone.

    Many skilled workers lost their jobs to machines, and factory workers endured dangerous conditions, six-day weeks , and 12 to 14 hour shifts.

    In Industrial areas in the early 19th Century, the average age for children starting work was just eight and a half. It wasn’t until later in the century that children under 10 were banned from working in factories.

    Towns and cities were breeding grounds for diseases. Life expectancy was around 30 to 33 in Urban areas until 1850, but 10 years more in country side.

    Poor nutrition meant that the average height of British workers actually fell in the first half of the 19th century.

    Campaigners tried to improve the lots of the working classes , eventually securing advances like free education , restrictions on child labor, improved sanitation and better working conditions .

    Some industrialists made large donations to charities , or built new , modern towns for their workers.

    But despite protests , many working people were denied the right to vote throughout this period , and reforms were almost always had won.

    Ultimately , the industrial revolution was a time of great upheaval.

    By the early 20th century , it had changed the people , the landscape and the politics of England beyond all recognition. in so many ways , it made the modern world.

  • Basic Details Of Each Continent

    The seven continents are Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antartica, Europe and Australia.

    Continents are massive landmasses on earth.

    Asia ;

    Asia is the largest and most populous continent with more than 4 billion people, greater than that of all the other continents combined. On its three sides there is Indian ocean, pacific ocean and arctic ocean. There are 48 countries in Asia. Both the highest point on the land , mount Everest (over 8848 meters above sea level) and the lowest point on the land, the dead sea (-395 meters) are found in Asia. Himalayas are World’s highest mountains. Hundreds of languages are spoken here. India alone has 30 official languages. TAJ Mahal, the great wall of China, Bali islands are important attractions.

    Africa :

    There are 54 countries in Africa. Africa is the second largest and second most populous continent. Surrounded by Atlantic ocean , Indian ocean , Mediterranean sea, red sea. Largest country is Algeria. Nile is the longest river in the World, The Sahara in Northern Africa is the largest hot desert. Most attractive places are Victoria falls in Zambia and Mauritius.

    North America :

    It is the third largest continent.North America has 23 countries . Surrounded by Pacific ocean, Atlantic ocean and Arctic ocean. Mexico has largest population. United states is the richest country. Major attractions are Niagara falls and Disney land.

    South America :

    Surrounded by Pacific ocean and Atlantic ocean. Popular attractions are Amazon river ( Largest river by volume ), Angel falls ( Highest waterfall in the world) , Atacama desert ( Driest place ), World’s largest rain forest is at the Amazon river basin.

    Antarctica :

    Ice covered continent. Surrounded by Southern ocean. Windiest, driest and least populated . There is no permanent residence in Antarctica. Beautiful emperor Penguins are found here. It is tallest and heaviest of all living penguins.

    Europe :

    Europe is the World’s third most populous continent with 50 countries. Russia is the largest and Vatican is the smallest country of the world. Major attractions are Big Ben in England and Eifel Tower in France.

    Australia :

    Australia/Oceania is the smallest continent. Main cities are Melbourne, Sydney, Brisbane, Darwin, Canberra. Most known Australian animals are Kangaroo and Koalas. Main attractions are opera house and Alps.

  • Kidneys

    The Kidneys are two bean-shaped organs that extract waste from blood, balance body fluids, form urine, and aid in other important functions of the body.

    Some of the core actions are

    Kidneys clean the blood and remove fluid.

    Kidneys balance the amount of Potassium , Phosphorus and Calcium in the blood.

    Some dietary contents ( such as Sodium and Protein ) can affect Kidneys. When the Kidneys do not function normally ,levels of certain minerals can become too high , including Potassium and Phosphorous.

    In some settings , patients can become full of fluid if not enough urine can be made .

    Kidney diseases :

    Accute Kidney injury :-

    Sudden Kidney damage that may be only temporary.

    Chronic Kidney Disease ( CKD ) : –

    Kidneys lose their function overtime : this may lead to a need for dialysis.
    Causes include high blood pressure , diabetes , genetic diseases and diseases that affect the immune system.

    For eating well in case of Chronic Kidney Disease occurrence ;

    A Proper diet is important. Some CKD patients may not eat enough food because ; proper appetite may not be present ; they are told by doctors to limit certain types of foods/drinks and they don’t know what to eat. Here one should know what the proper diet is .

    It is important to ;

    Limit the intake of foods and drinks that can cause problems .
    Make sure to eat enough food to avoid poor nutrition.

    Patients with CKD should intake food containing ;

    Calories ( Fats, Carbohydrates – Especially in diabetic patients – ),

    Sodium-Potassium- Phosphorous- Calcium-Protein,

    Fluids ( For some patients ),

    Vitamins.

    Kidney Dialysis is used for a patient suffering from Kidney trouble . Dialysis is a treatment that filters and purifies the blood using a machine .This helps keep our body in balance when the Kidneys can’t do their job.

    Dialysis has been used since 1940s to help people with Kidney problems .Properly functioning Kidneys prevent extra water , waste and other impurities from accumulating in our body .

    They also help control blood pressure and regulate the levels of chemicals in the blood , such as Sodium or salt and Pottassium .

    They even activate a form of Vitamin D that improves the absorption of Calcium .

    When our Kidneys can’t perform these functions due to a disease or injury , dialysis helps to keep the body as normally as possible .

    Without dialysis , salts and other metabolic waste products will accumulate in the blood and poison the body .

    However dialysis isn’t a cure for Kidney diseases or other problems affecting the Kidneys . Different treatments may also be needed to address these concerns .