China has either been a single monarchy or multiple divided monarchies throughout its entire history up until the 19th century.

From small farming communities rose dynasties such as the Zhou(1046-256 BCE ) and Ming ( 1368-1644 CE ). Each had its own contribution to the region.Thousands of archeological findings are in the Huang He ( Yellow river ) , Henan Valley – the apparent cradle of chinese civilization- provide evidence about the Shang dynasty , which endured roughly from 1700 to 1027 BCE. The first prehistoric dynasty is said to be Xia, from about the twenty-first to the sixteenth century B.C.

The next period marked an evolutionary stage between the late neolithic cultures that followed the settlement of nomadic tribes in the fertile valley of the yellow river and the subsequent first chinese urban civilization of the Shang dynasty.

Quing Dynasty ruled China from 1644 to 1912. There were dozens of various rebellion arising in Qin dynasty in the 1800s, these were really devastating. .

Opium wars with Britain(1839-1842)and(1856-1861)

The first Opium war , British took over Hong Kong and extracted trade concessions from China . They also established British sovereignty over the trading centers . China was coerced into giving up the opposition to trade with the West . Major ports of China were opened to British trade and residence . Free trade was imposed on China . This meant that British could trade with any Chinese trader and custom duties were reduced . Also , a British diplomat was permanently stationed in China . British citizens in China could only be prosecuted under the British law .

Between the two Opium wars , other European nations and USA also signed trade agreements with China but the former desired more favorable treaties , which led to the second Opium war .After the second Opium War , the trade treaties were revised . Even more Chinese ports were opened for trade . The European ships got rights of transit in Chinese rivers and Europeans could freely travel across China . China was made to guarantee security of life of Missionaries and the latter were given right to establish Churches anywhere in China . Ironically along with all this religiosity import into China , the Opium trade was also legalized .

After the second Opium War , many more European nations , some South American nations and Japan established trade relations with China . Thus , China was opened up with different imperialist powers gradually establishing their Spheres of Influences in China .

Boxer rebellion ( 1899 – 1900 )

By 1900 , China was divided into spheres of influences ( thus China was reduced to a status of International colony ) . It was felt that it would soon be partitioned , with each Imperial power ruling its sphere of influence . The rebellion was against foreign interference in political , economic and religious affairs and was crushed by a joint Anglo – German – Russian – French – Japanese – American force . The Empress was forced to pay massive compensation for damage to the foreign property in China .

Boxer Protocol , signed thereafter , allowed foreign powers to station their troops for protection of their citizens in China . After the treaty , Russia continued to occupy all of Manchuria .

Quing Dynasty ruled China from 1644 to 1912.

There were dozens of various rebellion arising in Qin dynasty in the 1800s, these were really devastating. Taiping rebellion for example had as many causalities as world war I.

Taiping Rebellion ( 1899-1901 ).

Occurred 20-30 Million death in this revolt . It was a religious as well as a political movement , with an aim to setup a heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace through armed rebellion against the Manchu dynasty. Christian Taiping rebels demanded shared ” property in common,” equality for women, and the replacement of Confucianism, Buddhism and Chinese folk religion with their form of Christianity.

Out of the 1800s was so bad for China that later historians would call the period from 1839 onwards as the century of humiliation. Socially the Qin Dynasty was hated too as the ruling class were Manchurians who were made distinguished from the other populations within China such as the Han Chinese. The Mongols, the Tibetans, the weavers and so on all male subjects were even required by law to wear a Cue hairstyle which was immensely unpopular because traditional Chinese philosophy and ideals aborted not cutting your at all which is why the Chinese often wore their hair into buns before hand.

Qing Dynasty rule had

-Weakened central power.

-Could not Modernize China

-There was influence of western imperialist powers.

-Rising Japan was a threat to dynasty.

-Aristocratic-archaic rules

The people were not happy by any stretch of the imagination yet Qin Dynasty was still there kind of hard to really have an idea for mandate of heaven if despite everything that’s happened there’s no new dynasty coming in to save the day well that made the idea of a popular revolt for a republic much more popular one such proponent was soon yatch’s in who had envisioned a Chinese republic.

Russo-Japan War ( 1904 – 1905 ) : It was fought over Manchuria. Japan won this war and took over Russian possessions in China. Thus more Chinese territory came under Japan’s control.KMT fought a Civil war with Chinese Communist Party which emerged victorious by 1949, establishing a communist form of government in China while Chiang Kai Shek fled to Taiwan operating a government in exile.

Dr. Sun Yatsen lead the Chinese revolution in 1911 which ended the Qing dynasty’s rule. China became the republic of China ( ROC ) in 1911.

3 principles of Dr.Sun Yat-sen was –


>>>>Rights of people/Democracy.

>>>>-People’s livelihood/socialism.

October 10, 1911 : Start of the Xinhai Revolution.

>In October 1911, united efforts of anti-monarchists and reformists and reformists led to overthrow of dynastic rule. Also known as Xinhai revolution.

>In October of 1911 , a group of revolutionaries in Southern China led a successful revolt against the Quing Dynasty ,

>The revolutionary alliance attempted seven or more different revolts against the Quing in the years leading up to the revolution , most of which originated in South China and all of which were ultimately stopped by the Quing army.

>Foreign nations with investments in China remained neutral throughout the upheaval, though they were anxious to protect the treaty right they gained from the Quing through the first and second Opium war.

>establishing in its place the republic of China and ending the imperial system.

>Republic of China established.

>A democratic national assembly with limited franchise.

>Chinese Nationalist Party (Sun Yat-Sen) V/S Last emperor of Qing – Puyi.

>61 year old emperor PUYI abdicated. Northern China (Beijing) power came in hands of general Yuan Shikai and Southern China (Nanking) came under the provisional govt. under Dr. Sun Yat-Sen.

>Sun left presidency and handed power to Yuan in order to unite China. Yuvan Shikai became the president of Republic of China.

Chinese revolution made China a republic from the 2000 years of rules of kings of different dynasties.

Nationalist party ( Kuo Min Tang , KMT ) was founded in 1912 by Dr. Sun Yat Sen, who had returned to China after the 1911 revolution. It wanted a united, democratic and modern China.

But Yuvaan Shikai soon became an autocratic leader.

1915- Declared himself as emperor. ( Known The Hongxian emperor ) and started National Protection War in (1915-1916).

Expelled KMT from govt/national assembly.

Chaos ensues – fragmentation of power and not a unified China.

Further, when Yuan declared himself to be the Emperor in 1915 against the wishes of provincial armies, he was removed from power and the Warlord era began ( 1916 – 28 ).

1916-Shikai dead

Warlord Era in China ( 1916-1928 )

During this time China disintegrated in numerous states, each controlled by a Warlord with a private army, who fought among themselves.

The warlord era created chaos in China and the farmers suffered the most hardships.

May 4th Movement ( 1919 ) :

was a movement started by the Chinese youth against the warlords and the regressive Chinese culture. Students gathered and held mass demonstrations. The Chinese Communist Party was formed in 1912 and it was sympathetic to the cause of peasants, who were the most oppressed section of the society under Warlord era.

Simultaneously, KMT was strengthening itself militarily under Chiang Kai Shek and was successful in ending the rule of Warlords and uniting the country by end of 1927-28.The KMT was opposed to the communist ideology of Chinese Communist Party, which focused on peasant welfare through measures like land redistribution, while the KMT was pro-landlords. Also by 1927, KMT, being militarily stronger, was able to suppress the communists.

After Sun’s death in 1925 by cancer , his trusted general , Chiang Kai-shek ( General Issimo Chiang Kai-Shek ) rose to prominence in KMT.

Chiang Kai Shek : After 1925 , it was Chiang Kai Shek , militarily trained man , who was responsible for developing the KMT Army with the Soviet help . Although he studied the working of Communist Party and Red Army of Soviet Russia , he had a right wing ideology and was pro – capitalist class .

Northern March ( 1926 ) — a military campaign by KMT and Chinese Communist party against the Warlords.Successful military campaign against the warlords of the North , to unify China.Successful campaign helped him rise in prominence and stature in KMT.

But Chiang Kai-Shek became an autocrat and started acting against the Communist Party under Mao Zedong. The Communist Party under Mao arranged the long march and strengthened the party in China. The CPC was supported by the peasants and poor.

He removed all the communist members from the KMT in 1925 and thus , was less tolerant than his predecessor Sun Yat Sen.

In 1927, after its win against the Warlords, the KMT initiated the purification Movement, which was KMT’s campaign against the Chinese Communist Party during which worker and peasant leaders as well as Chinese Communist Party members were massacred. In fact, the Chinese Communist Party was to a good extent eliminated.

Chinese Civil War ( (1927-1949) :

The CPC was trying to start a socialist revolution in areas where it was dominant ( Shanghai, Wuhan )

After the second world war, the Chinese civil war started and the Kuomintang government retreated to Taiwan and communist party under Mao, established the People’s republic of China ( PRC). KMT government continued its rule from Taiwan. Till today, Taiwan is ruled as the republic of China.

Cultural Revolution

This known as the Great Cultural Revolution. It was more a propaganda campaign launched by Mao to renew revolutionary fervour in his quest for saving the communist revolution, for mobilizing public support in favour of the Great leap forward and for keeping the GLF on pure Marxist-Leninist lines.

Great Leap forward

Great leap forward was Mao’s reformations with support of young energetic communists.

The efforts began to reap benefits and agricultural and industrial production increased significantly in the long term.The GLF, through its of communes prevented over-central that stifles initiative. Communes were much more than simple tool for collective farming.

GLF was able to check unemployment due to the scattered and labour inten industrial model.

Spread of education, improved status of women, better welfare services, some other benefits of the GLF. Maoism manifested in the form of the Great Leap Forward initiated by Mao after the criticism he faced during the 100 flowers campaign. During 100 flowers campaign initiated to allow people to elicit their views, many people began to criticize the party and demanded transition to a democracy. Mao realized that he needed to take steps to protect the communist revolution and increase economic prosperity of the common map to route their belief in Communism.

Evaluation of Great Leap Forward in the long term, the GLF proved to be an important milestone for China.

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