History of War of American Independence

The American revolutionary war happened in the years from 1765 to 1783. It was a colonial revolt for independence from Great Britain .

In North America, British people had established 13 colonies on the West Coast of ocean. After the Seven Year war, the influence of the French in America was ended. While the British Mercantilism or Mercantile capitalism created an environment of resentment among the white Americans, the Seven Year War created conditions, which became the immediate trigger for the War of American Independence.

Whenever Britain needed Money they’d imposed tax. Tax on Paper , Tea ,Oil etc.

In the year 1764 – BRITAIN Introduced Sugar Act. Forcing the Colonies to import Sugar exclusively from Britain and pay duties on them .The Sugar Act also imposed new taxes on other imported products, like wine, coffee, and fabric, and strictly regulated the export of lumber and iron, than the foremost demanded commodities produced within the colonies

Later in March 22, 1765 came stamp act .When Britain passed the stamp act , imposing a tax on legal documents, newspapers, even playing cards, this was the primary taxation on the American colonists , and is hotly resisted. A successful American campaign to own the act repealed gave Americans confidence that they’ll avoid future taxes likewise.

Members of American colonial society argued the position of ” No taxation without representation ” starting with the Stamp Act congress in 1765. they rejected the authority of the British parliament to tax them because they lacked members in the governing body.

Protests steadily escalated to the Boston Massacre in 1770 and the burning of the Gaspee Rhode island in 1772.( Gaspee affair 1772.)

700 troops marched from Boston to Massachusets by order of British Major to fight patriots.

Tea act of 1773 had forced colonies to shop for tea exclusively from East Indian tea company and taxed on tea. December 16th 1773 happened a rebellion called Boston party, during which patriots destroyed a consignment of taxed tea, throwing to sea. British troops back fired to Boston by the Locals.

British people responded by closing port, ( Boston port Act : Closed the port of Boston until Boston agreed to pay the East Indian company for the Dar-mouth Cargo. Boston wouldn’t import any foreign goods or export to other nations.)

Then followed with a series of legislative acts which effectively rescinded Massachusetts Bay colony’s rights of self-government and caused the opposite colonies to rally behind Massachusetts in late 1774.(Massachusetts Government Act : Members of the legislature were to be appointed by the king rather than being popularly elected. This was by revoking the Massachusetts charter of 1691. Forbade town meetings that the governor had not given permissions.)

Administration of justice Act : No royal official committing a law-breaking can be trialed in Massachusetts. Made it more likely that soldiers would flee with violence against citizens.

Administration of justice Act : No royal official committing a capital offense could be trialed in Massachusetts. Made it more likely that soldiers would get away with violence against citizens.

Quartering Act : Colonists must provide food and housing for British soldiers on demand. Robbed citizens of the right to privacy and security in their own homes.

Quebec Act : Passed later in 1774. Changed the system of government for Canada ; disbanded representative assembly and revoked the right to trial by jury.

The patriots set up their own alternate government to better co-ordinate their resistance efforts against great Britain ; other colonists preferred to remain aligned to the crown and were known as Loyalists or Tories. First continental congress held on 5th September to 26th October (1774 ).

Tensions erupted into battle between Patriot militia and British regulars when the king’s army attempted to capture and destroy colonial military supplies at Lexington and concord on April 19, 1775. The conflict then developed into a global war, during which the patriots ( and later their French , Spanish and Dutch allies ) fought the British and loyalists in what became known as the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783) . Each of the thirteen colonies formed a provincial congress that assumed power from the old Colonial governments and suppressed Loyalism, and from there they built a continental Army under the leadership of General George Washington .

April 19, 1775
The first shots of the Revolutionary War were fired at Lexington and Concord in Massachusetts. The news of the bloodshed rockets along the eastern seaboard, and thousands of volunteers converge—called “Minute Men”—on Cambridge, Mass. These are the beginnings of the Continental Army.

Washington took command of the American army, on 3rd July 1775.

The continental army forced the redcoats out of Boston in march 1776, but that summer the British captured and held Newyork City and its strategic harbor for the duration of the war.

The continental congress determined King George’s rule to be tyrannical and infringing the colonists’ rights as Englishmen , and they declared the colonies free and independent states on July 2 , 1776.

The patriot leadership professed the political philosophies of liberalism and republicanism to reject monarchy and aristocracy, and they proclaimed that all men are created equal.

July 1776

In July 4, 1776 States of America formed.
The Declaration of Independence is adopted by the Second Continental Congress. Following a decade of agitation over taxes and a year of war, representatives make the break with Britain. King George III isn’t willing to let his subjects go without a fight, and loyalist sentiment remains strong in many areas. Americans’ primary allegiance is to their states; nationalism will grow slowly.

American Constitution starts with We the People. There are three regions British Canada, Under Spain , and region under USA.

George Washington , addressing the continental army , August 27,1776. – “The time is now near at hand which must probably determine whether American are to be freemen or slaves ; whether they are to have any property they can call their own ; whether their houses and farms are to be pillaged and destroyed , and themselves consigned to a state of wretchedness from which no human efforts will deliver them. The fate of unborn millions will now depend , under God, on the courage and conduct of this army. Our cruel and unrelenting enemy leaves as only the choice of brave resistance , or the object submission. We have , therefore , to resolve to conquer or die. “

The patriots unsuccessfully attempted to invade Canada during the winter of 1775-76, but successfully captured a British army at the battle of Saratoga in October, 1777,and the French entered the war as allies of the United states as a result. (Battle of Saratoga : American side 90 killed. British side 440 killed.)


Battle of Saratoga: Britsh Setback

October 17, 1777
General John Burgoyne’s attempt to separate the rebellious New England colonies from those farther south ends in a spectacular failure. The surrender of 6,000 British regulars at Saratoga will shock London and help induce France to enter the war on the American side.

The war later turned to the American South were the British under leadership of Charles Cornwallis captured an army at Charleston, South Carolina in early 1780 but failed to enlist enough volunteers from loyalists civilians to take effective control of the territory while fighting patrisons. A combined American-French force captured a second British Army at Yorktown in the fall of 1781, effectively ending the war in North America.

The treaty of Paris , signed September 3, 1783, formally ended the conflict, confirming the new nation’s complete separation from the British Empire. Treaty of Paris in 1783.
Then Colony Under direct rule of Britain,

The united states took possession of nearly all the territory east of the Mississippi river and south of the great lakes, with the British retaining control of Canada and Spain taking Florida.

Among the significant results of the revolution was the creation of a new constitution of the United States of America. The new constitution established a relatively strong federal national government that included an executive , a national judiciary , and a bicameral congress that represented states in the senate and the population in the house of representatives. The revolution also resulted in the migration of around 60000 loyalists to other British territories, especially British North America ( Canada ).

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