• Leading Oil Producing Countries Of The World

    Oil is the most efficient source of energy in the world today. There is major oil deposits in South West Asia, U.S.A., Soviet Union, Europe and the North Sea, respectively. Petroleum and natural gas and their products are the most important commodities in international trade today.

    It is a global industry, wherein prices are reported almost exclusively in international terms. South West Asia has largest deposit of petroleum and natural gas. The first oil well was dug near Titusville ( Pennsylvania ) north of Pittsburg. Subsequently oil was found in Romania and Russia, near Caspian Sea-Baku ( Azerbaijan ). At present over 50 per cent of the oil is found in the countries of South-West Asia. The leading oil-producing countries of this region are Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, UAE, Qatar, Bahrain, Oman and Abu Dhabi.

    The oil producing countries raised the price of petroleum rapidly in 1974 which led to energy crisis in the world.

    Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries ( OPEC ) - was established in 1960. OPEC Headquarters is in Vienna , Ausria.

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    The OPEC countries include

    1. Angola, 2.Algeria, 3.Iran, 4.Iraq, 5.Kuwait, 6.Indonesia, 7.Libya, 8.Nigeria, 9.Qatar, 10.Saudi Arabia, 11.UAE, 12.Venezuela. The other oil exporting countries include Mexico and Russia.

    Role of OPEC is to co ordinate and unify the petroleum policies of its member countries and ensure the stabilization of oil markets in order to secure an efficient , economic and regular supply of petroleum to countries

    Natural Gas : Natural gas is one of the important source of energy. Natural gas burns clean and is easy to use, and relatively cheap to buy. Its storage and distribution is, however complicated. It is found either separately or with crude oil.

    The leading producers of natural gas are United States followed by Russia, Iran, Canada, Qatar, China, Norway, Australia, etc. So far as the consumption of natural gas is concerned, USA followed by Russia, China and Iran.

    In USA major natural gas deposits lie in Arkansas, California, Colorado, Houston, Indiana, Kansas, Louisiana, Montana, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Texas, and West Virginia. In Europe, North Sea, Italy, Germany, France, Poland, Romania, and Ukraine have rich deposits of natural gas. The distribution of important mineral resources of Australia includes natural gas and petroleum. Australia, a country with small population, is quite endowed with coal, iron-ore, copper, gold, silver, lead, uranium, platinum, tin, and zinc. Australia is one of the important exporters of basic minerals and energy resources.

    Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG): As we know LPG is the main source of energy for cooking and have other uses also. LPG mainly constitute of mixture of isoprene and butane . LPG has very wide variety uses mainly used for cylinders across many different markets as an efficient fuel container in the agricultural , recreation , hospitality , calefaction , construction sailing and fishing sectors .It can serve as fuel for cooking , central heating and to water heating and it is a particularly cost effective and efficient way to water heat off-grid homes . Around 60% of the Liquified Petroleum gas comes from the extraction of natural gas and oil from the earth. The other 40% is produced through the refining of crude oil , ie. fractional distillation of crude oil using an LPG manufacturing process (LPG production process). 

  • Basics of Economics

    Economics is divided into two broad categories. * Microeconomics and * Macroeconomis

    Microeconomics – Study of individual decisions taken by bussiness , House holders , Workers etc. Microeconomics and Macroeconomics are complementary to one another.

    Macroeconomics – Focuses on the study of economics taken by countries and governments and assesses the economy as a full .

    Deals with issues like inflation , growth , inter-country trades , unemployment etc. it’s more sort of a top-down approach where the country is analyzed first and subsequently industry and businesses .The most common Macroeconomics factors are Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ) , Inflation ,Government debt , business cycles etc.

    Microeconomics is comparable to bottom-up approach where businesses must be analyzed first followed by industry and country .

    Mixed economy refers to a financial set-up where public enterprise further as private enterprise both co-exists.

    Command economy, on the opposite side, the govt. regulates the market or owns the key industries. Production and sales of products are determined by the govt. Cuba and North Korea are a number of the few countries with a command economy.

    Closed Economy is that economy during which neither imports nor exports occur therein particular country. As the name suggests the country provides the consumers with everything they have from within the country’s economy.

    An economic boom is that the expansion and peak phases of the fluctuation, it is also referred to as upswing , upturn and a growth period . During a boom, key economic indicators will rise. Gross domestic product which measures a nation’s economic output, increases.


    Economic recession may be a period of general economic decline and is often among a call in the stock exchange, a rise in unemployment, and a decline within the housing market. Generally a recession is a smaller amount severe than a depression.


    Depression could be a sustained future downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. it’s more severe economic downturn than a recession , which could be a slowdown in economic activity over the course of a standard variation. Depressions are characterized by their length , by abnormally large increase in unemployment, falls within the availability of credit, shrinking output as buyers dry up and suppliers reduce on production and investment, more bankruptcies including sovereign debt defaults, significantly reduced amounts of trades and commerce ( especially international trade ) , additionally as highly volatile relative currency value fluctuations ( often thanks to currency devaluations ) .

    Price deflation , financial crisis and bank failures also are common elements of a depression that don’t normally occur during a recession.


    Recovery is that the phase of fluctuation following a recession, during which an economy regains and exceeds peak employment and output levels achieved before downturn.


    Inflation occurs when the costs of products and services increase over time. Inflation cannot be measured by a rise within the cost of 1 product or service, or perhaps several products or services.

    Rather, inflation may be a general increase within the overall price index of the products and services within the economy. Therefore, the short term measure to counter inflation is to extend the costs of general goods.

    Inflation and economic process are parallel lines and may never meet. Inflation reduces the worth of cash and makes it difficult for the people. Inflation and economic process are incompatible, due to the previous affects all sectors as indicated by CPI or Consumer indicant.

    A zero rate of inflation obtains necessarily in an exceedingly year where the annual rate of inflation is both falling and rising in an year.

    Unexpected inflation tends to harm those whose money received – in terms of wages and interest payments – doesn’t rise with inflation.

    Inflation can help people who owe money which will be paid back in less valuable, inflated dollars. Low rates of inflation have relatively little economic impact over the short term. Over the medium and future, however, even low rates of inflation can complicate future planning.

    High rates of inflation can muddle price signals within the short-term and stop economic process from operating efficiently.


    GDP, Gross Domestic Product, measures the entire value of all final goods and services produced within the economy of a rustic during a given year. GDP provides an economic snapshot of a rustic, accustomed estimate the scale of an economy and rate of growth. GDP may be calculated in 3 ways, using expenditures, production, or incomes. It is adjusted for inflation and population to produce deeper insights. Though it has limitations, GDP may be a key tool to guide policy-makers, investors, and businesses in strategic decision-making.

    The GDP Growth Rate compares the year-over-year (or quarterly) change in country’s economic output , usually expressed as a percentage rate. this measure is important for economic policy-makers because GDP growth is assumed to be closely connected to key policy targets like inflation and unemployment rates. If GDP growth rates accelerate, it’s going to be a symptom that the economy is overheating and therefore the financial institution may seek to lift interest rates. Conversely, central banks see a shrinking (or negative) GDP rate of growth (i.e. recession ) as an indication that rates should be lowered which stimulus is also necessary.


    Ages of World history are mainly as follows

    Paleolithic  –  Old stone age 

    Mesolithic – Late stone age

    Neolithic- New stone age

    Chalcolithic – Stone Copper age

    And Iron age.

    In Which

    Upto 600 BC – Pre Historic Period

    600 BC – AD 476 – Ancient History/Classic Era

    AD 476 – AD 1450 – Middle Ages

    AD 1450 – AD 1750 – Early Modern Age.

    From AD 1750 – 1946 – Modern Age.

    From 1946 – Present – Contemporary Period.

    [   Sources of History are mainly :  from Coins , archeological evidences , Material remnant , Inscriptions , prehistory writings , Foreign Accounts etc. ]

    Classic Era ( 600 BC – AD 476)

    Ancient Greece ( 600 BC to AD 600 )

    •                   This is that the time during which Foundations of Democracy, Philosophy, Mathematics, Drama, Poetry occurred in Greece.

    Ancient Rome ( 753 BC to AD 476 )

    •                 This is often the time during which the Political power had Developed. Also system, Irrigation, Architecture, City Roads etc. had developed . Christianity had grown in Ancient Rome during this period of time.  

    Persian empire ( 550 BC to 330 BC )

    • Which is the Empire in Middle east , Practiced Zorastrianism before Islam.
    • It Fell to the hand of Alexander the the Great in 330 BC.


    MIDDLE AGE ( AD 476 to AD 1450 )

    Byzantian Empire ( AD 285 to AD 1453 )

    • Mediterranean Culture 
    • Incorporated practices and beliefs from Ancient Greece and Rome.
    • Not fell until after the renaissance.

    Renaissance Humanism ( AD 1400 to AD 1500 )

    • Break from Midieval Scholasticism that incorporated classical thought into Early Modern Ideas .

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    Early Modern Age( AD 1450 - AD 1760 )

    Protestant Reformation ( AD 1517 to AD 1650 )

    • Religious Movement >>> Lutheranism ( State by Martin Luther ) broke with the Catholic Church and redefined Christianity.

    The European Renaissance ( AD 1450 – AD 1600 )

    • Known as a Cultural “ rebirth “ in (art ) , (music ) , (literature ) , ( Society ) and (philosophy) .

    The Enlightenment ( AD 1600 – AD 1800 )

    • Intellectual Movement also called the Age of Reason ; saw the re examination of Politics , Economics and Science before giving way to Romanticism in 19th Century .
    • The European Renaissance or ” rebirth ” occured during this period as well as the discovery and Colonization of the Americas and age of Enlightnenment .

    Modern Age ( AD 1760 - AD 1946 )

    First Industrial Revolution ( AD 1760 to 1840 )

    • Increase of City factories and mills . Technology innovations ( and completion of Erie Canal )

    Revolutionery Period  ( AD 1764 to AD 1848 )

    • In this period revolutions occurred in the world.
    • American revolution ( 1763 -1783 )
    • French Revolution ( 1789 )
    • Spanish American wars of Independence ( 1808-1814 )
    • Italian Revolution ( 1848)
    • Greek war of Independence ( 1821 – 1831 )
    • The Spring of Nations (1848)

    Victorian Era ( AD 1837 to 1901 )

    Reign of Queen Victoria I

    Increased Urbanization

    American Civil War  ( 1861 – 1865 )

    End of african Slavery ( 1865 )

    Second Industrial Revolution  (  AD 1869  to AD 1914 )

    • Technological Revolution
    • Light Bulb ( Thomas Alwa Edison – 1879 ) 
    • Telephone ( Alexander Graham Bell – 1876 )
    • The Airplane Model( Wright Brothers – 1903 )

    were invented.

    Age of Imperialism ( AD 1870 to 1914 )

    • This is the period of Colonialism occured , in this century France , Britain , Spain , The Netherlands and United states colonized other nations around the world.

    World War 1  ( AD 1914 to 1918 )

    • World wide Conflict.
    • Central Powers (mainly Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey) against the Allies (mainly France, Great Britain, Russia, Italy, Japan, and the United States joined from 1917).
    • Reason was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary by Serbian-nationalist terrorist group called the Black Hand, in June 1914.
    • It became known as the Great War because it affected people all over the world and was the biggest war anyone had ever known.

    Great Depression ( AD 1929 to AD 1939 )

    • Extended period of Worldwide economic hardship that started with stock market crash in 1929 .

    World War II ( AD 1939 to AD 1945 )

    • The war was between Axis powers (Germany, Italy, and Japan) and the Allies (France, Great Britain, the United States, the Soviet Union, and, to a lesser extent, China).
    • Germany’s invasion of Poland in September 1939 drove starting of war.
    • World War II was the biggest and deadliest war in history, involving more than 30 countries.
    • Sparked by the 1939 Nazi invasion of Poland, the war dragged on for six bloody years until the Allies defeated Nazi Germany and Japan in 1945.
    Contemporary Period ( AD 1945 to Current )
    • Technological advances define social , economic and political life. Also referred to as information period.

  • Types of Winds

    Winds are natural phenomena which occurs in different forms.

    Different names can be heard for winds .Which are Hurricane, Cyclone, Typhoon etc.

    These names mainly called based on the location.

    Hurricane – Which is in North America and Caribbean.

    Cyclone -is in Indian Ocean.

    Typhoon- in Southeast Asia.

    and Typhoons are called Willy Willies in Australia.

    • Cyclones

    Cyclone occur much more often.

    But few of them grow large and strong enough to become hurricanes or typhoons.

    A tropical cyclone is a huge mass of clouds that gather in the sky and start rotating counter clock-wise due to very low air pressure.

    The weekest version of a tropical cyclone is called a tropical depression.

    It’s a similar swirling mass of clouds, usually accompanied by storms, but the force of winds in it is not very high.

    When the winds are stronger than 39MPh, the cyclone is then called a tropical storm.

    This is a more serious threat, because gust of wind might reach 72Mph.

    And only if the wind gets even more powerful than that, then it can be called a hurricane or a typhoon.

    If a severe tropical cyclone with wind Speed of over 75 mph occurs in the North Atlantic or North-East , its called hurricane.

    If its in the North-West Pacific, then it’s a typhoon.

    • Typhoons

    Typhoons are a bunch of clouds and thunderstorms that originate over tropical or subtropical ocean waters forming a closed circulation.

    It’s a natural happening that occurs from time to time. It associate with phenomenon of violent winds, large waves, torrential rains and floods.

    The biggest storm ever was Super Typhoon hit near micronesia in western pacific. Which is of 2200 Km wide and 305 Km/hr wind.

    The causes of Typhoons are – >>>Pre existing weather disturbances>>> warm tropical oceans >>>> moisture >>>> relatively light winds.

    We hear more about hurricane than typhoons because the Atlantic Ocean is warmer than the Pacific, and warm water acts like a fuel for cyclone.

    • Hurricanes

    Large and swirling storms . Produce winds of 119 Km per hour ( 74 mph ) or higher.

    They form over warm ocean water . 

    Parts of Hurricanes   :   

    Eye : The eye of the ‘hole’ of the centre of the storm . Winds are light in this area . Skies are parly cloudy and sometimes even waters.

    Eyewall : The eyewall is a ring of thunderstorms . Theses storms swirl around the eye .

    The wall is where winds are strongest and rain is heaviest.

    Rain Bands : Bands of clouds and rain go far out from a hurricane’s eye wall .

    These bands streatch fair hundreds of Miles . They contain thunderstorms and sometimes tornadoes.

    Hurricane got the name from the God Huracan , the Mayan God of wind, storm and fire.

    There are 5 categories of hurricanes according to the National Weather Service.

    Category 1 is just slightly more intense than a tropical storm, and in some countries its still considered as such.

    Category 2 is another story altogether. The wind blows at speed of up to 109 mph , and that’s where the real trouble starts.

    When a hurricane grows to category 3 , its already a disaster.

    First of all , it’s big . Secondly it’s powerful . The winds are reaching 129 mph , and catching such a gust is like being hit with a race car .

    A category 4 major hurricane is something you don’t want to see with your own eyes .

    With gusts of wind up to 157 mph , it can tear trees from the ground and hurl fairly large objects in the air , causing lots of damage .

    And finally , a category 5 major hurricane is a thing to be avoided at all costs.

    In other classifications it’s even called a super typhoon or a super cyclonic storm.

    • Tornado

    A Tornado is a Swirling funnel of air coming down from the sky. It appears during thunderstorms, and it’s rather a consequence than a reason for severe weather.

    But despite its horrible power, a tornado is a very local event, and short-lived at that. The biggest one ever registered by scientists was just over 1.5 mi in diameter and lasted about an hour or so.

    The centre, in its turn, is usually calm and windless – so calm, in fact , that its almost creepy.

    It’s called the eye of the Tornado or the hurricane, and its the safest place to be when phenomenon comes to you.

    • Biggest Cyclone Outbreaks in history are here mentioned below.

    Hurricane Camille : 1969 August 14-22- United States.

    Hurricane Mitch (1998) – October 22-November 9.- Central America.

    Typhoon Nina (1975) – July 30 – August 6-China.

    The Dust Bowl – 1930 s- USA and Canada.

    Hurricane Katrina – ( 2005 ) August 23- 31 – Gulf Coasts of United States.

    Bhola Cyclone – 1970 November 3 – 13 – India and East Pakistan

    Iran Blizzard – ( 1972 ) February 3-9 – Iran

    Tri-State Tornado – 1925 March 18 – Mid Western and South Western United States.

    The great Galveston Hurricane – 1900 ( August 27 – September 17 ) – Galveston – Texas – USA.

    Hurricane Mathew ( 2016 ) ( Sep 28 – Oct 10 ) – USA and Canada.

    Cyclone Nagris ( 2005 ) April 27 – May 23 ) – Bangladesh, Myanmar, India, Srilanka.

    Hurricane Sandy ( 2012 ) ( October 22 – November 2 ) – United States and Canada

    The Coriolis Effect : In combination with an area of high preassure, causes the prevailing winds – the trade winds to move from east to west on both sides of the equator across this 60-degree “belt” .

    The sinking air triggers the eastern trade winds and little precipitation , completing the cycle .

    Doldrums is the popular nautical term that refers to the belt near the equator.

    At equator where sailing ships sometimes get stuck on windless waters. Because the air circulates in an upward direction , there is often little surface wind in the ITCZ .

    Westerlies :Westerlies are the Permanent winds that blow in the middle latitudes. They blow from the subtropical high-pressure belts towards sub-polar low-pressure belts.

    The westerlies of the Southern hemisphere are more robust and constant than the westerlies of the Northern hemisphere.

    Roaring Fourties : are strong westerly winds found in the Southern Hemisphere , generally between the latitude of 40 and 50 degrees .

    The strong west-to-east air currents are caused by the combination of air being displaced from the equator towards the south pole , the earth’s rotation and the scarcity of landmasses to severe windbreaks.

    Westerlies in southern hemisphere are stronger and persistent than in northern hemisphere .

    Because Coriolis Force is higher in southern hemisphere as compared to Northern Hemisphere.

  • Types of Clouds

    Clouds are mainly Cirrus, Cumulus, Nimbus and Stratus.

    Cirrus :

    Formed of high altitude 8000-12000 KM . Almost height upto the peak of Mount Everest . they’re thin . appear as if feather . cold . Composed of Ice Crystals /droplets.

    Cumulus :

    4000-7000 Km. Like plant fiber . appear as if Colley flower . May or might not produce rain. If join together chances to rain is heigh . Bigger than Cirrus clouds .

    Nimbus :

    Black and dark gray middle levels . Very nearer to surface of earth . Extremely dense and opaque to the rays of the sun . Sometimes the clouds so low that they appear to the touch the bottom . Nimbus clouds are shapeless masses of thick vapour .

    Stratus :

    Horizontal layer of clouds . but 2Km. Like dust and fog . don’t allow sunlight to pass . If it’s there the sky look darker .

    Cloudy nights are warmer than clear nights because, the  clouds act as a shield and as an insulator and store up the warmth radiated by the planet and don’t permit heat to flee. Clouds act as a blanket, keeping more warmth ( radiation) near the surface of the earth.

    Clouds can be classified mainly as shown below. ( High Clouds, Middle Clouds, Low Clouds )

    High Clouds( Above 7000m)

    Cirrus ( Ci) :

    Detached clouds in the form of white, delicate filaments, or white or mostly white patches or narrow bands. These clouds have a fibrous (hair-like) appearance or a silky sheen or both.

    Cirrocumulus (Cc) :

    These are thin, white patch ,sheet, or layer of clouds without shading composed of very small elements in the form of grains, etc., merged or separate , and more or less regularly arranged ; most of the elements have an apparent width or less than 1 degree – approximately the width of the little finger at arms length.

    Cirrostratus (Cs) :

    Transparent, whitish cloud veil of fibrous or smooth appearance, totally or partially covering the sky or mackerel sky , and generally producing halo phenomena.

    Middle Clouds ( 2000-7000m)


    White or gray, or both white and gray, patch, sheet, or layer of clouds, generally with shading, composed of rounded masses, rolls, etc., sometimes partly fibrous or diffuse, and may or may not be merged; most of the regularly arranged small elements usually have an apparent width of between 1 degree and 5 degree- approximately the width of three fingers at arms length.


    Grayish or bluish cloud sheet or layer of straited, fibrous, or uniform appearance, totally or partly covering the sky, and having parts thin enough to reveal the Sun at least vaguely, as through ground glass. The Sun is dimly visible, the altostratus clouds, however, do not show halo phenomena.

    Low Clouds( Below 2000 m )


    Gray cloud layer, often dark, the appearance of which is rendered diffuse by more or less continually falling rain or snow , which in most cases reaches the ground. It is thick enough throughout to bolt out the Sun. Low ragged clouds frequently occur below the layer with which they may or may not merge.


    Gray or whitish , or both gray and whitish , patch-sheet or layer of clouds that almost always has dark parts, composed of tessellations, rounded masses, rolls, etc., that are non-fibrous (except for virga) and may or may not be merged.


    Generally gray cloud layer with a fairly uniform base, which may give drizzle, ice prisms, or snow grains. When the Sun is visible through the cloud, its outline is clearly discernible. Stratus does not produce halo phenomena(except possibly at very low temperatures ). Sometimes stratus appears in the form of ragged patches.


    Detached clouds , generally dense and with sharp outlines, developing vertically in the form of rising mounds, domes, or towers , of which the bulging upper part often resembles a cauliflower. The sunlit part of these clouds are mostly brilliant white; their bases are relatively dark and nearly horizontal. Sometimes cumulus is ragged.


    Heavy and dense clouds, with considerable vertical extent, in the form of a mountain huge towers. At least part of its upper portion is usually smooth, or fibrous of striated, and nearly always flattened; this parts often spreads out in the shape of an anvil or plume. Under the base of this cloud, which is often very dark, there frequently low ragged clouds either merged with it or not. The cumulonimbus clouds give torrential rainfall. Lightning and thunder are also the common features of these clouds.

    • Cloud Seeding :

    Cloud seeding could be a weather modification technique that improves a cloud’s ability to provide rain or snow by artificially adding condensation nuclei to the atmosphere, providing a base for snowflakes or raindrops to make.

    After cloud seeding takes place, precipitation falls from the clouds back to the surface of the planet.This we refer as Artificial rain.

    • Rain Forests:

    Rain forests experiences annual rainfall amounts of just about 400 inches. quite half world species and animals found in rainforests .

    Rainforests can classified mainly as tropical rain forests and temperate rain forests which is in step with tropical and temperate region of earth.

    Rainforests are characterized by a closed and continuous tree Canopy, Moisture – dependent vegetation , the presence of epiphytes and lianas and therefore the absence of wildfire.

  • Vitamins

    Vitamins are a group of chemically diverse organic compounds that an organism requires for normal metabolism.

    Apart from a few exceptions ( eg. Vitamin D ) the human body can not synthesize vitamins on its own in sufficient amounts and must , therefore ensure a steady supply through the diet.

    Vitamins are micronutrients that do not produce energy ( like micro nutrients ) but instead have very specific biochemical roles .

    They can be coenzymes in various reactions ( B Vitamins , Vitamin A , and K ) and/or antioxidents that protect the cell and its membrane from free radicals ( Vitamin C and E ).They can also enable cell signaling ( Vitamin A ) and gene transcription ( Vitamin A and E ) or function as hormones ( eg. Vitamin D ) .

    Vitamins are classified into fat soluble vitamins , which the body can store , and water soluble vitamins , which with the exception of Vitamins B9(Folate) and B12 ( Cobalamin ) , the body can not store over significant periods of time and therefore , requires continuous intake.

    A balanced diet typically supplies the body with all vitamins it requires . Defficiencies occur mainly due to malnutrition , malabsorption , disorders or restrictive diets.


    Vitamin A food include sweet potatoes, carrots , dark leafy greens , winter squashes , lettuce , dried apricots , cantaloupe , bell peppers , fish ,liver and tropical fruits.Lack of Vitamin A causes night blindness in children and hence , to prevent from night blindness , mothers feed the children with Vitamin-A. Vitamins do not act as a source of energy but play major roles in overall growth of the body such as stimulating the growth of the body , anti-oxidising etc.

    Vitamin B

    The B-group vitamins are a collection of eight water-soluble vitamins essential for various metabolic processes.

    B vitamins are important for making sure the body’s cells are functioning properly. They help the body convert food into energy (metabolism), create new blood cells, and maintain healthy skin cells, brain cells, and other body tissues.

    Some foods are high in several B vitamins, and certain foods are particularly high in specific B vitamins. Eating a balanced diet is key to getting all nutrients your body needs.

    Vitamin C

    Also Known as L-Ascorbic Acid , is a water soluble vitamin that is naturally present in some foods , added to others, and available as a dietary suppliment . Humans , unlike most animals , can not synthesize Vitamin C endogenously , so it is an essential dietary component . Vitamin C is required for biosynthsis of Collagen . L- Creatinine, and certain neurotransmitters. Vitamin – C is also involved in protein metabolism.

    Vitamin D 

    Vitamin D is essential for strong bones, because it helps the body use Calcium from the diet. Frequently Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with rickets, a disease in which the bone tissues does not properly mineralise, leading to soft bones and skeletal deformities. Vitamin D is actually a hormone rather than a Vitamin. The body makes most of the Vitamin D it needs, only about 10 % comes from our food. The action of sunlight on our skin on 7-dihydroxy cholesterol and produce a substance called Cholecalciterol , which is converted by the liver to Vitamin-D.


    Vitamin E found in major green leaves , the germs of seeds in Olives and Olive oil and in other foods ( lettuce ) , is supposed to energise and potentise the reproductive glands . Many forms of E are said to exist in foods . It seems to be essential for reproduction among rats in which its absence cause the germ cells to perish and the seminiferous tubules , in which the germ cells are produced , to atrophy. The overies of the female remain normal but the embryo dies a few days after fertilization.

    Vitamin K

    Vitamin K is a group of fat soluble vitamins. It is of two types. Vitamin K1-Phylloquinone and Vitamin K2- Menaquinone. These Vitamins required for several processes. Leafy greens, vegetables ( Vitamin K1), fermented foods ( Vitamin K2) are main Vitamin K sourses. Bone development and production of coagulation factors are done by Vitamin K dependent proteins. Deficiency causes bleeding, bone development problems, osteoporosis, increased risk of fractures etc. Defective problems are absorption in intestine could be defective, and strong antibiotics can kill gut microflora and reduce absorption. Vitamin K deficiency mainly caused by decreased dietary intake, decreased absorption (of Vitamin K ) and certain medications.

  • Celestial Objects

    The Celestial objects which are objects in our sky, are of different types. Planets in Solar system, Moon, different types of stars and clusters, Asteroids, Comets all are contained in this list. Some of which and its details are mentioned here.

    When we look at a celestial object we are looking at how it appeared that long ago in the past.

    Milky way galaxy is a big place, even at this blazing speed, it takes the sun approximately 225-250 million years to complete one journey around the galaxy’s center. That amount of time – “the time takes us to orbit the center of galaxy” – is called a Cosmic year.

    •  Asteroids.

    The Asteroid belt is a torus-shaped region in the solar system, located roughly between the orbits of the planets Jupitor and Mars, that is occupied by a great many solid, irregularly shaped bodies, of many sizes but much smaller than planets, called asteroids or minor planets.

    These are rocky worlds revolving around the sun which are too small to be called as planets . Made up of Metals and rocks and consists of organic compounds . Which have shorter and elliptical orbits. Can found millions of asteroids that measures hundreds of kilometers across. Some as small as dust particles . Mass less than that of Moon.

    Most of the asteroids are small but some have diameter as large as 100 Km. Which are revolving around the sun between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.

    • Comets.

    Comets also orbit the sun and are relatively small bodies of solar systems. When Comets approach the sun , some of their ice particles melt the other materials vapourises due to the heat of the Sun . This results in a glowing halo that extends outwards as though sailing through the space. The ice and compounds like ammonia and methane develop a fuzzy cloud-like shell known as Coma. This forms a notable difference between comets and asteroids . 

    • Meteors.

    A meteor is a streak of light in the sky. A meteor, sometimes called a shooting star or falling star, is actually a space rock that is crashing through Earth’s atmosphere. A meteor is a streak of light in the sky caused by a meteoroid crashing through Earth’s atmosphere.

    • Halley’s Comet.

    Halley’s Comet is arguably the most famous comet. It is a periodic comet and return to Earth’s vicinity about 75 years, making it possible for a human to see it twice in his or her lifetime. The last time it was here in 1986 , and it is projected to return in 2061.

    Halley’s orbital period has varied between 74-79 years since 240 BC. Its orbit around the sun is highly elliptical with an orbital eccentricity of 0.967( with 0 being a circle and 1 being a parabolic trajectory) The perihelion, the point in the comet’s orbit when it is nearest the sun, is just 0.6 AU.


    Black hole is a region of space from which nothing, not even light, can escape. It is the result of the deformation of Space time caused by a very compact mass.

    The simplest black hole has mass but neither electric charge nor angular momentum. The mass of the blackhole is finite. But has very high density, the reason why a blackhole has infinite density is that its mass is concentrated into a space of zero-volume.

    Chandrasekhar determined what is known as the Chandrasekhar limit-that is a star having a mass more than 1.44 times that of the sun does not form a White dwarf but instead continues to collapse , blows off its gaseous envolope in a supernova explosion, and becomes a neutron star.

    Recently Scientists observed the merge of giant “black holes” billions of light years away from the earth. The blackhole is supposed to be located in Abel 2261, an enormous galaxy cluster that is about 2.7 billion light years away from our planet. At 2.7 billion light years away, the Abel Galaxy is at an overwhelmingly large distance away from us.

    • Planets

    The order of the planets in the solar system, starting nearest the sun and working outwards is the following : Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and then the possible planet Nine.

    Planets have an apparent motion but does not twinkle. Planets do not twinkle because 

    1) Planets are not a source of light instead they reflect low intensity light reaching them.

    2)They are also closer to the earth than the distant stars. Hence the shift is not enough for the planets to twinkle.

    Because of the lack of an atmosphere in moon ,  sunlight omited is scattered. So whether its daytime or night time on the moon, the sky appears black.  

    • Earth

    When the earth was created more than 4000 million years ago, there was 54% oxygen and no carbon dioxide. When living organisms originated, they modified the early atmosphere of the earth.

    The early atmosphere largely contained water vapor, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia and very little of free oxygen. The process through which the gases were outpoured from the interior is called degassing. Continuous volcanic eruptions contributed water vapor and gases.

    The energy from earth, Geothermal energy is the heat received from the earth’s core, this heat continuously flows outwards. It transfers to the surrounding layers of the rock, the mantle. When temperature and pressure becomes very high some mantle rocks melt becoming magma.

    From electromagnetic radiation to revolution of the earth everything is responsible for bringing dynamic changes on the surface of the earth and that changes made the earth as of the form that we live now.

  • International Organizations

      Here gives organizations deals with international matters of countries which include political, economical, health, Cultural etc.

    BRICS -

    BRICS Established in 2009.

    Members –  Brazil  ,  Russia  , India  , China  , South Africa.  

    Initially South Africa was not in BRICS. It was only BRIC .

    Later Africa invited to join in December 2010.


    Established in 1975.

    Members :  Canada  ,  USA  , UK  ,  France  ,  Germany  ,  Japan  and  Italy.

    Role :   The heads of government of the member states meet on the annual G7 summit  .  The major purpose of the G-7 is to discuss and deliberate an international economic issues  .  It sometimes act in concern to help resolve other global problems with a special focus on economic issues.


    Established In 1999.

    Members: The G20  (  Group of 20 )  is an international forum which includes 19 of the World’s largest economies and the European Union.

    Role :  The group of 20 or G20 is the premier forum for international Co-operation on the most important aspects of the international economic and financial Agendas.

     Since December 1st , 2020 Italy holds the presidency of the G20.

    European Union -

    Established in 1993.

    Members 27.

    Role : The European union plays important role in diplomacy , the promotion of human rights , trade , development , and humanitarian aid working with multilateral organisations.

    European Union Brexit : On January 31 , 2020  , the United Kingdom ( UK  ) finally left the European Union . European Union is the first country to leave EU.

    Headquarters :  Brussels.

    Amnesty International (AI) -

    Head quarters : London , United Kingdom.

    Established in 1961.

    Role : Amnesty draws attention to human rights abuses and it campaigns for compliance with international laws and standards. It works to mobilize public opinion to generate pressure on government where abuse take place.

    Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries ( OPEC ) -

    Headquarters  :  Vienna , Autria.

    Established in 1960.

    Members – 13.

    Role : To co ordinate and unify the petroleum policies of its member countries and ensure the stabilization of oil markets in order to secure an efficient , economic and regular supply of petroleum to countries.

    Association of South-East Asian Nations ( ASEAN ) -

    Headquarters :  Jakarta ,  Indonesia.

    Established in : 8 August 1967.

    Members : 10  (  Brunei  ,  Cambodia , Indonesia , Laos  , Malaysia  , Myanmar  , the Philippines  ,  Singapore , Thailand  and  Vienna.

    The South Asian Association of Regional Co-Operation   (  SAARC ) -

    Head quarters : Kathmandu , Nepal.

    Established in – 8th December 1985.

    Members – 9 Countries – Afganistan , Bangladesh , Bhutan , India  , Maldives , Nepal , Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

    Role : To promote the welfare of people of South Asian , strengthen collective self – reliance , promote active collaboration and mutual assistance in various fields and co-operate with international and regional organizations.

    New Devolopment Bank ( NDB ) -

    Headquarters : Shanghai , China.

    Established in : 2014.

    Formerly referred to the BRICS Devalopment bank established by BRICS States.

    Members : Brazil, Russia , India , China and South Africa.

    Role : It is an international organization jointly founded by the BRICS Countries.

    Organization for Economic Co-operation and Devolopment  ( OECD ) -

    Headquarters – Paris , France.

    Established in 1961.

    Members : 37.

    Role : The organization for Economic Co-operation and development ( OECD ) is an international organization that works to build better policies for better lives.

    International Union for Concervation of Nature  (IUCN)  -

    Headquarters : Gland , Switzerland.

    Established in 1948.

    IUCN is a global union compared of both government as well as Civil Society organizations . Aim is to encourage international Co-operation and provide scientific knowledge and tools to guide coservation action.

    Interpol : International Criminal Police Organization  - 

             Headquarter : Lyon , France.

             Established in 1923.

             Members : 194 member countries including India.

             Role : It is an international Organization that facilitates worldwide Police Co-operation and crime controll. It’s World’s largest Police Organization.

    Shanghai Co-operation Organization (SCO)  -

    Headquarters : Beijing , China.

    Established in – 2001.

    Members : 8 ( China , Kazakistan , Kyrgystan , Russia , Tajikistan Uzbekistan , India and Pakistan.

    India and Pakistan joined SCO as full members in 2017.

    Role : Eurasian Political , Economic and Security alliance . 

    Largest Regional Organization in the War in terms of geographical courage and population.

    World Economic Forum ( WEF ) -

    Headquarters  :   Geneva.

    Established in – 24th January 1971.

    Role : It is an international NGO of Public-Private partnership . The Forum engages the foremost political , business , cultural and other leaders of society to shape global , regional and industry agendas.

    Asian Devolopement Bank (ADB) -

    Headquarters : Philippines.

    Establisheshed in : 19 December 1966.

    Members : 66 Countries ( Including India ).

    Role : To produce prosperity , inclusivity ,resilience and sustainability to Asia and Pacific along with eradicaton of povetry.

  • The earth’s crust is made up of seven major and several minor plates , which fit closely together. The positions of the plates are not static. They are constantly moving relative to one another.

    The type of movement between plates affects the way in which they alter the structure of the earth.

    Plate Tectonic Theory says The earth’s crust is splitting up into dozens of pieces called tectonic plates , which float on top of the mantle .Warmed by the blazing hot core, the mantle churns in circular convection currents , dragging tectonic plates along for the ride.

    The movement of continents relative to each other across the Earth’s surface is known as continental drift. Although it was a subject of speculation by numerous early workers, the first comprehensive case of continental drift was presented by the German meteorologist, polar explorer, astronomer, and geologist, Alfred Wegner in 1914. Wegner suggested that all the Earth’s land had once been joined into a single supercontinent, surrounded by an ocean. He called the land mass Pangaea ( Pan=all + Gaea=earth ) and the surrounding ocean Panthalassa( Pan=all+ Thalassa=ocean). Wegner thought Pangea had broken into pieces during the Carboniferous period. Since then, the pieces had moved to their present positions and are still moving.

    Some continents look exactly like puzzle pieces that snap together . Early map makers suspect once they were all connected. He thought different chunks of it moves apart, to form like continents we know today.

    Wegner cited various evidence in support of his theory of super continent ( Pangea) which gradually seperated into Northern ( Laurasia ) and the Southern ( Gondwanaland ) landmass before finally splitting into continents of the present day.

    Wegner’s evidence included the apparent shore fit of continents across the North and South Atlatic. The evidence included the matching configuration of opposing continental coastlines, the similarity of geological structures on seperate continental masses, the anomalous location of ancient deposits, indicating specific climatic conditions, and distribution of fossil species through time.

    He believed that the continents were slung towards the equator on the spinning Earth by a centrifugal effect, while the westward movement of the continents was due to the tidal force of the Moon and the Sun. The theory was rejected first by most geologists and geophysicists, largely because of a lack of viable mechanism. Wegener was dismissed as a crank. His critiques claimed, with some justification, that he had carefully selected those evidence, supporting his hypothesis, ignoring contrary contrary evidence. Where, for instance, were the ‘wakes’ or ‘tracks’ through old seabed that the migrant continents would leave? But a few geologists sided with Wegner. Further support for continental drift was provided during the 1950s and 1960s through evidence from paleomagnetism. In 1967 the idea was incorporated into the theory of Plate Tectonics.

    That large continent Pangea started 200 Million years ago. Split of Pangea and Panthalassa resulted the formation of continents as of today.

    Wegner couldn’t explain why and how the continent Pangea splited. It is because similar plants and rocks found the parts which get drifted. Ages and types of rock layers matched upto.

    Continental drift have influenced the evolution . One of the most prominent example of effect of continental drift on evolution of organisms was the unique primates found in Australia and South Africa.

    Rejected at first , by the scientific community Wegner’s theory of continental drift eventually was proved correct.

    Today plate techtonic is the unifying theory of of the entire fields of geology. It explains the rock cycle , the origin of Earth’s surface features , and the cause of seismic activity such as earthquakes and volcanoes.

    When the earth was created more than 4000 million years ago, there was 54% oxygen and no carbon dioxide. When living organisms originated, they modified the early atmosphere of the earth.

    From electromagnetic radiation to revolution of the earth everything is responsible for bringing dynamic changes on the surface of the earth and that changes made the earth as of the form we live now.

    The early atmosphere largely contained water vapor, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia and very little of free oxygen. The process through which the gases were outpoured from the interior is called degassing. Continuous volcanic eruptions contributed water vapor and gases.

    The energy from earth, Geothermal energy is the heat received from the earth’s core, this heat continuously flows outwards. It transfers to the surrounding layers of the rock, the mantle. When temperature and pressure becomes very high some mantle rocks melt becoming magma.

  • Types of Forests

    A plant community , which has grown naturally without human aid refered as Natural Vegetation. It includes:

    Forests,Grasslands,Shrubs and bushes


    • Tropical deciduous forests :

    Tropical desiduous are the mansoon forests found in the large part of India, Northern Australia, Central America.These regions experience seasonal changes.Trees shed their leaves in the dry season to conserve water.

    • Temperate deciduous forests:

    Decidous means to fall off, or shed seasonally. Just as the name implies, these decidous trees shed their leaves each fall.

    Lying on the forest floor, the leaves decay. As the leaves decomposes, the nutrients contained in the leaves are absorbed by the soil. For this reason, the soils of their biome tend to be very fertile.

    They are found in areas with warm, moist summers and mild winters.The three major areas of these forest type occur in the Northern hemisphere.

    Mainly in North America, East Asia and Europe. Smaller areas occur in Australia and Southern South America.

    Examples of tropical trees in the Northern hemisphere’s deciduous forests include Oak, Maple, beech and elm.

    Birds like broad winged Hawks, Cardinals, Snowy Owls and Wood peckers are also found in this biome.

    Mammals include white-tailed deer, raccoons, oppossums, porcupines and red foxes found.

    Animals that live in the temperate decidous forests must be able to adapt to the changing seasons.

    • Rain forests (Tropical evergreen & Temperate evergreen ):

    Tropical Rainforests(Tropical Evergreen):

    Tropical rainforests also called tropical Evergreen –are located near the equator between the Tropic of Cancer at the north and Tropic of Capricon in the South of the equator and close to the tropics. These regions are hot and recieve heavy rainfall throughout the year.

    are warm and humid and temperature ranges from 21 to 30 degree Celsius ( 70 to 85F ).The average annual temperature of tropical rain forests is above 20C .

    The Tropical rain forests receive annual precipitation amount of 60 to 160 inches ( 152 to 406 CM ) . Some rain forests in the world experiences annual rainfall amounts of almost 400 inches.

    More than half of world species and animals found in rainforests .

    These rainforests are rightly called the ” jewels of the earth ” and the ” World’s largest pharmacy “.

    As there is no particular dry season, the trees do not shed their leaves altogether. This is the reason they are called evergreen.

    Multiple storey of broad leafed evergreen tree species are in abundance. The thick canopies of the closely spaced trees do not allow the sunlight to penetrate inside the forest even in the day time.

    Most nutrients that are absorbed into the soil are leached out by the abundant rainfall, which leaves the soil infertile and acidic.

    Animals like Jaguar, Lemur, Leopard etc are found.The trees growing in tropical Evergreen are hardwood trees Rosewood, Ebony, Mahogany.

    Amazon forests in Brazil is so enormous that it is like the Lungs of the Earth. Anacondas, one of the World’s largest snakes is found in the tropical rainforests.

    Temperate Rainforests (Temperate Evergreen):

    Temperate rainforests account for around one-quarter of the World’s forest in a temperate region.

    These rainforests spread much further north and south than their tropical counterpart.

    They exist in North America, Europe, South America and also in Australia and New Zealand.

    • Mediterranean Vegetation :

    This type of vegetation occur between 30 and 40 degrees northern and southern latitudes on the westward sides of continents and include five regions. These are the Mediterranean, south central and southwestern Australia, the fynbos of southern Africa, the Chilean Matorral, and the Mediterranean ecoregions of California with scrubland vegetation (chaparral).

    The Mediterranean forests have lost much of their natural condition as a result of excessive logging, fire, and overgrazing by livestock, especially goats. Forests are especially threatened at the boundaries of their natural distribution, such as the forest–steppe regions of southern Ukraine and Russia or in the Mediterranean Basin.

    Most of the Central Europe’s alluvial forests along all major river courses have virtually disappeared. Airborne pollution (mostly in the form of acid deposition and photochemical smog) is also a major cause of damage to forest ecosystems in Europe, particularly in Central and eastern Europe. First reported in the Black and Bavarian forests of Germany in the early 1970s, damage from air pollution may now be detected in a quarter of all European trees.

    Although boreal and Mediterranean forestsare different in many ways, management and restoration strategies in both regions have begun to focus on ecological heterogeneity as a way to increase ecosystem resilience and sustain native biodiversity.

    For terrestrial ecosystems, the most basic form of heterogeneity is in the soil. Soils are naturally variable at all spatial scales, from soil micro-structure to the landscape. This variability plays a major role in driving habitat diversity, from the soil biota, to vegetation structure and composition at local and regional scales, to landscape-scale patterns.

    • Coniferous Forests :

    Coniferous forest regions have cold, long, snowy winters, and warm, humid summers; well-defined seasons, at least four to six frost-free months. Example: Lahti, Finland.

    The coniferous forest is sandwiched in between the tundra to the north and the deciduous forest to the south. One type of coniferous forest, the northern boreal forest, is found in 50° to 60°N latitudes. Another type, temperate coniferous forests, grows in lower latitudes of North America, Europe, and Asia, in the high elevations of mountains. Coniferous forests consist mostly of conifers, which are trees that grow needles instead of leaves and cones instead of flowers. Conifers tend to be evergreen—they bear needles all year long. These adaptations help conifers survive in areas that are very cold or dry. Some of the more common conifers are spruces, pines, and firs.

    Annual rainfall in coniferous forests varies from 300 to 900 mm annually, with some temperate coniferous forests receiving up to 2,000 mm/ year (79 in/year). The amount of precipitation depends on the forest location. In the northern boreal forests, the winters are long, cold and dry, while the short summers are moderately warm and moist. In the lower latitudes, precipitation is more evenly distributed throughout the year.

    Temperate Coniferous forests cover the highest percentage of forest literacy rate in the world. Temperate coniferous forest is a terrestrial biome found in temperate regions of the world with warm summers and cool winters and adequate rainfall to sustain a forest.

    • Tundra :

    A vast, flat, treeless Arctic region of Europe, Asia and North America in which the subsoil is permanently frozen.Devoid of tree except standard shrub in the southern part of Tundra biome.Grand flora like litchen, mosses and sedges.

    Animals like reindeer, arctic fox, polar bear, snowy owk, arctic hare.Reptiles and amphibians are almost absent.Extremely cold climate, low biotic diversity.Limitation of drainage.

    Short season of growth and reproduction.Energy and nutrients in the form of dead organic material.Tropical rain forests.

    • Taiga :

    The Swampy coniferous forest of high northern latitudes, especially that between the tundra and steppes of Siberia.Northern Europe, Asia and North America, moderate temperature than tundra also known as boreal forest.

    The dominating vegetation is coniferous evergreen mostly spruce with some pine and firs.The fauna consists of small seed eating birds, hawks, fur bearing carnivores, little minks, elks, puma, siberian tiger, wolverine, wolves etc.

    • Savannah :

    Tropical region savannah is most extensive in Africa.Grasses with scattered tree and five resisting throny shrub. The tropical Savannah is a biome characterized by tall grasses and occassional trees.

    The fauna include a great diversity of grazzers and browers such as antelope, buffalo, Zebra, elephant, lions, cheetah. Savannas can result from either climate, soil conditions, animal behaviour or agricultural practices, which limit the occurances of trees.

    Humans create Savannah by burning the grasslands and felling the trees in order to plant crops. Large animals such as elephants can turn a forest into a Savannah by stripping the bark from the trees , knocking over trees and tramping on tree seedlings.

    • Grassland :

    North America, Ukraine, have temperate conditions with rather low rainfall.Grasses dominated the vegetation, fauna like cattle, rodent, wolves and rich and diverse array of ground nesting birds.

    • Desert :

    Very low rainfall, days are hot but nights are cold.The flora is drought resistance vegetation such as cactus, sagebrush, fauna reptiles, birds, mammals etc.