Ancient Civilizations

What was the First Civilizations had in Common – was water.

The Nile in Egypt – Euphrates , Tigris (3200 BC ) in Mesopotamia – And the Indus river in Pakistan .It was the rivers that made these civilizations possible. The rivers made the soil fertile.

From 8000 BC the first cities begin to appear . Jericho in Jordan and Catal Horuk in Modern day Turkey. The Indus Valley people emerged in CA.2500 BC , Pre Historic India – North West region. Throughout the Indus Valley , in present day India and Pakistan.

The Indus Civilization :

Indus Valley Civilization was bigger than both Sumer and Egypt.

Settlement of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro populated 40000 to 50000 individuals and featured baked-brick buildings.The Indus Civilization’s greatest city was Mohen Jo Daro .They had highly organized system of trade. Sophisticated sewer and water supply systemClean Cities spacious streets.Writing system was mysterious and undecipherable.But from 1000 BC the Civilization was in decline.Great Floods can here been a major factor in its downfall .

Mesopotamia :

Mesopotamian Civilization in CA. 4000 BC was the First great Civilization born in Sumeria .The main Sumerian City States was Eridu , Uruk .Uruk is their gratest City.Located in Modern day Iraq.With a population of 20000.And its greate temple known as House of Heaven. Writing system – Cuneiform.This system allowed them to track the movement of grain throughout their territory , share stories and myths , and spread advice on agriculture and cooking , among other purpose .These innovations secured Mesopotamia’s modern title the “ Craddle of Civilization “.The Sumerian also pioneered Mathematics , Astronomy and Astrology invented Irrigation , started the first Schools , codified the first Codes of Law .They fashioned our current conceptions of time by dividing the day into hours , minutes and seconds.

Egyptian Civilizations :

Egyptian Civilization was in CA.2950A millennium. After the rise of the Sumerian City states it was the new Civilization born , in the river Nile of Egypt . And No place was more fertile than Egypt. The fertile land could feed the Egyptian workforce. And the Egyptian workers constructed the great pyramids . 1st 2950 BC King Narmer unites upper and lower Egypt .Creating the World’s first nation-state .He makes the city of Memphis his capital in 2580 BC the Sphinx and the great Pyramids are built. This period is called the Old Kingdom. It’s the first golden age of Egypt.

Chinese Civilization :

From small farming communities rose dynasties such as the Zhou(1046-256 BCE ) and Ming ( 1368-1644 CE ). Each had its own contribution to the region.Thousands of archeological findings are in the Huang He ( Yellow river ) , Henan Valley – the apparent cradle of chinese civilization- provide evidence about the Shang dynasty , which endured roughly from 1700 to 1027 BCE. The first prehistoric dynasty is said to be Xia, from about the twenty-first to the sixteenth century B.C.The next period marked an evolutionary stage between the late neolithic cultures that followed the settlement of nomadic tribes in the fertile valley of the yellow river and the subsequent first chinese urban civilization of the Shang dynasty.

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