Rainforests are characterised by a closed and continous tree Canopy, Moisture – dependent vegetation , the presence of epiphytes and lianas and the absence of wildfire.
Primarily there are two types of rainforests.1.Tropical Rainforests.2.Temperate Rainforests.
Tropical Rainforests :
Tropical rainforests also called tropical Evergreen –are located near the equator between the Tropic of Cancer at the north and Tropic of Capricon in the South of the equator and close to the tropics.
These regions are hot and recieve heavy rainfall throughout the year. are warm and humid and temperature ranges from 21 to 30 degree Celsius ( 70 to 85F ).
The average annual temperature of tropical rain forests is above 20C .
The Tropical rain forests receive annual precipitation amount of 60 to 160 inches ( 152 to 406 CM ) . Some rain forests in the world experiences annual rainfall amounts of almost 400 inches.
More than half of world species and animals found in rainforests.
These rainforests are rightly called the ” jewels of the earth ” and the ” World’s largest pharmacy “.
As there is no particular dry season, the trees do not shed their leaves altogether. This is the reason they are called evergreen.
Multiple storey of broad leafed evergreen tree species are in abundance. The thick canopies of the closely spaced trees do not allow the sunlight to penetrate inside the forest even in the day time.
Most nutrients that are absorbed into the soil are leached out by the abundant rainfall, which leaves the soil infertile and acidic.
Animals like Jaguar, Lemur, Leopard etc are found.The trees growing in tropical Evergreen are hardwood trees Rosewood, Ebony, Mahogany.
Amazon forests in Brazil is so enormous that it is like the Lungs of the Earth. Anacondas, one of the World’s largest snakes is found in the tropical rainforests.
Temperate Rainforests :
Temperate Rainforests : Temperate rainforests account for around one-quarter of the World’s forest in a temperate region.
These rainforests spread much further north and south than their tropical counterpart.
They exist in North America, Europe, South America and also in Australia and New Zealand.