Basic Details Of Each Continent

The seven continents are Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antartica, Europe and Australia.

Continents are massive landmasses on earth.

Asia ;

Asia is the largest and most populous continent with more than 4 billion people, greater than that of all the other continents combined. On its three sides there is Indian ocean, pacific ocean and arctic ocean. There are 48 countries in Asia. Both the highest point on the land , mount Everest (over 8848 meters above sea level) and the lowest point on the land, the dead sea (-395 meters) are found in Asia. Himalayas are World’s highest mountains. Hundreds of languages are spoken here. India alone has 30 official languages. TAJ Mahal, the great wall of China, Bali islands are important attractions.

Africa :

There are 54 countries in Africa. Africa is the second largest and second most populous continent. Surrounded by Atlantic ocean , Indian ocean , Mediterranean sea, red sea. Largest country is Algeria. Nile is the longest river in the World, The Sahara in Northern Africa is the largest hot desert. Most attractive places are Victoria falls in Zambia and Mauritius.

North America :

It is the third largest continent.North America has 23 countries . Surrounded by Pacific ocean, Atlantic ocean and Arctic ocean. Mexico has largest population. United states is the richest country. Major attractions are Niagara falls and Disney land.

South America :

Surrounded by Pacific ocean and Atlantic ocean. Popular attractions are Amazon river ( Largest river by volume ), Angel falls ( Highest waterfall in the world) , Atacama desert ( Driest place ), World’s largest rain forest is at the Amazon river basin.

Antarctica :

Ice covered continent. Surrounded by Southern ocean. Windiest, driest and least populated . There is no permanent residence in Antarctica. Beautiful emperor Penguins are found here. It is tallest and heaviest of all living penguins.

Europe :

Europe is the World’s third most populous continent with 50 countries. Russia is the largest and Vatican is the smallest country of the world. Major attractions are Big Ben in England and Eifel Tower in France.

Australia :

Australia/Oceania is the smallest continent. Main cities are Melbourne, Sydney, Brisbane, Darwin, Canberra. Most known Australian animals are Kangaroo and Koalas. Main attractions are opera house and Alps.

Albert Einstein

Born on 14th March 1879 at Ulm , in the Kingdom of Württemberg , in Germany in a Jewish family. His father , Herman Einstein , was a salesman and engineer, and mother , the former Pauline Koch , ran the family households.

In Switzerland Einstein completed his early education and spent four years at the poly technical academy of Zurich. Einstein obtained his bachelor’s degree in 1900. In 1905 , he got Ph.D. from the Zurich university.

He was the German mathematician and physicist who developed the special and general theories of relativity. Einstein promulgated his theory of relativity in 1905 , when his reputation grew among the physicists of Europe.

This theory of relativity states that the speed of light appears to be the same weather an object is moving rapidly to meet it or going away from it. His scientific discoveries enabled Einstein to give some new theories regarding space, time and gravitation.

His work also had a major impact on the development of Atomic energy. In his later years , Einstein focused on unified field theory. With this passion for inquiry Einstein generally considered the most influential physicist of the 20th century.

In 1912, Einstein became a professor at the Zurich polytechnic ( Switzerland ) . In 1914 , he was invited to become a professor at Prussian Academy of science in Berlin.

In 1921, he won the Nobel prize for physics for his explanation of the photoelectric effect.

The international fame to Einstein as a scientist of a very high caliber came in 1919 when his scientific theories were given recognition by the royal society of London, thereafter he made a wide tour across Europe explaining his views to the intellectuals.

The theory of relativity was discovered by Sir. Albert Einstein himself whereas he contributed immensely in quantum theory.

Einstein’s early contributions to quantum theory include his heuristic suggestion that ” light behaves as if it is composed of photons “, and his exploration of the quantum structure of the mechanical energies of particles embedded in matter.

The theory of radioactivity has no mention of Einstein. Similarly, the rocket propulsion system also has no mentioned contribution of Albert Einstein’s quantum theory.

When Hitler, who had a profound hatred for Jews came to power in 1933 Einstein left Germany, he immigrated to the U.S after being targeted by the German Nazi party. In 1935 Einstein was granted permanent residency in his adopted country and became an American citizen and settled permanently there thereafter.

Einstein also took up the classes of world peace. He died in Princeton ( USA ) on 18 April 1955, at the age of 76. At his request his brain and vital organs were removed for scientific study.

Interesting Archeological Excavations

Merv:

It is in Modern Turkmenistan. Existed back to 3rd millennium BC. Achaemenid Empire changed name of city Merv to Margu. “Cyris the great” of Persia changed name back to Merv. When Alexander the great conquered the Persian empire and changed name again and it was to Alexandria. In 220 – 553 AD Zoroastrianism, Buddhism and Christianism grown in Merv. In 6 to 11 AD east Syrian empire conquered Merv. Then converted to Islam and nothing left there . UNESCO have now declared it as a World heritage site.

Changhai Mountain Temple :

At the Roof Changai Mountain. Royal temple of 800 years old in the middle of Jin Dynasty, in 1115-1234. Oldest temple royal family ever used. This temple used for mountain worship ceremony.

Karahan Pepe :

Oldest and most mysterious sites in the world . Near Turkey and Syria border. . Now here remains huge monuments. There lived original hunter gatheres. Gobekli Pepe and Karahan Pepe are only 30 miles apart. It was 1400 years before invention of agriculture

Ancient Synagogue :

Along the sea of Galilee in Israel the Ancient Synagogue found. Daily Jewish worship kept here even under Roman rule. Second temple 0f Jerusalem destroyed in 70 AD by Romans. But Jewish practices kept here in this synagogue. And Few 100 feet away another one had discovered in 2009 by Department of Archeology of Israeli Antiquity . All streets , A ruined market place , the remains of an industrial facility , and traditional Jewish bath found here.

Superhenge :

2 Miles from stone henge in England Neolithic landscape found Superhenge. These are Ceremonial plazas and ritual centers. Nobody knows when this stone where put . May have been toppled by accident or purposefully. 4500 years ago stone henge was only significant arrangement of field . There are tons of there. Many of which are significantly larger.

Ancient Buddha Temple :

It is the Buddha structure in Pakistan. It is of Mauryan period from 3rd century BC. After 100 years from foundation major restructuring occurred. Alexander the great and the King Menander of 200 AD entered the temple . In 400 AD this temple used for worship.

Kushan’s city Bazira :

Ancient Bazira, in Pakistan also known as the city of Alexander the Great was established after the destruction of the lower city in the third century by a catastrophic earthquake. Indo Greek traders had came here after Alexander .People supported Buddhism.

Mayan’s City – Xchoch :

Mayan period was giant period. Mayan architecture used cave system to survive civilizations. Cities had Reservoirs, Cisterns, underground water table, endless supply of fresh water. Found artifacts, potteries etc. Insane number of bodies showing Mayan worships of rain Gods. This city abandoned in 300 AD.

Plain of Jars in Modern Laos :

Large grave sand stone structures found in modern Laos . Founded Brocken burial jars, many of them above 2000 years old. Seemingly disbursed random throughout field and of sandstone.

Chinese Mountain Pass :

It is a mountain pass at the Shanghai province of great wall of China. Used to block nomads from North. Best natural defensive positions in the world. The pass named as Yanmen pass . Yanmen pass also translates to Wild goose gate.Giant Wild Goose Pagoda or Big Wild Goose Pagoda (Chinese: 大雁塔; pinyin: Dàyàn tǎ, literally “big swan goose pagoda”), is a monumental Buddhist pagoda located in southern Xi’an, Shaanxi, China.The Pagoda was built in the Tang Dynasty (618-907). In 1368-1644 Ming Dynasty used this pass a major part . Trenches, fortresses, and beacon towers were built here. It’s a best preserved part of great wall of China. A section of 15000 feet/4572M length with 30FT tall wall.

Major floods in World History

  1. CHINA FLOODS : 1931. 2-4 Million Deaths. Storm and cyclone activity caused Yangtze, Yellow, and Huai fell above their maximum limit. Destroyed farm lands and caused long famine. Cholera epidemic spread and caused large number of deaths.
  2. YELLOW RIVER FLOOD : China, 1887 September. 9,00,000 deaths.
  3. YELLOW RIVER FLOODS : 1938 JUNE 9. 8,00,000 deaths. It was occurred during the second Sino-Japan war. Occurred during Japanese rapid advancement towards China. Some refers it as largest act of environmental warfare in history.
  4. Typhoon Nina : July 1975. 2,24,000 deaths. Tropical cyclone started in Vietnam moved to China caused collapse of a dam in China and more dams collapsed. It was the fourth largest flood ever in world history.
  5. Yangtze flood : July 1935. Fifth ever big flood in World history. 1,45,000 deaths.
  6. St. Felix’s Flood : 1530 November. 1,20,000 deaths. It was in the city of Rome. Biggest flood Europe ever seen. The day later known as evil Saturday.
  7. Jianzi river flood : 1911. 1,00,000 death. Main source for irrigation in China. Exact count of deaths may higher.
  8. Red River Flood: 1971 August. Red river delta in Vietnam.
  9. St. Lucia’s Flood :- 1287 December.50,000 to 80,000 death. Between Netherland and Germany. Destroyed all villages and Amsterdam.
  10. Netherland Flood : 1212 June. 60000 deaths. Lasted 5 months. Because of the rivers of North Sea Netherland is Prone to flooding.

Kidneys

The Kidneys are two bean-shaped organs that extract waste from blood, balance body fluids, form urine, and aid in other important functions of the body.

Some of the core actions are

Kidneys clean the blood and remove fluid.

Kidneys balance the amount of Potassium , Phosphorus and Calcium in the blood.

Some dietary contents ( such as Sodium and Protein ) can affect Kidneys. When the Kidneys do not function normally ,levels of certain minerals can become too high , including Potassium and Phosphorous.

In some settings , patients can become full of fluid if not enough urine can be made .

Kidney diseases :

Accute Kidney injury :-

Sudden Kidney damage that may be only temporary.

Chronic Kidney Disease ( CKD ) : –

Kidneys lose their function overtime : this may lead to a need for dialysis.
Causes include high blood pressure , diabetes , genetic diseases and diseases that affect the immune system.

For eating well in case of Chronic Kidney Disease occurrence ;

A Proper diet is important. Some CKD patients may not eat enough food because ; proper appetite may not be present ; they are told by doctors to limit certain types of foods/drinks and they don’t know what to eat. Here one should know what the proper diet is .

It is important to ;

Limit the intake of foods and drinks that can cause problems .
Make sure to eat enough food to avoid poor nutrition.

Patients with CKD should intake food containing ;

Calories ( Fats, Carbohydrates – Especially in diabetic patients – ),

Sodium-Potassium- Phosphorous- Calcium-Protein,

Fluids ( For some patients ),

Vitamins.

Kidney Dialysis is used for a patient suffering from Kidney trouble . Dialysis is a treatment that filters and purifies the blood using a machine .This helps keep our body in balance when the Kidneys can’t do their job.

Dialysis has been used since 1940s to help people with Kidney problems .Properly functioning Kidneys prevent extra water , waste and other impurities from accumulating in our body .

They also help control blood pressure and regulate the levels of chemicals in the blood , such as Sodium or salt and Pottassium .

They even activate a form of Vitamin D that improves the absorption of Calcium .

When our Kidneys can’t perform these functions due to a disease or injury , dialysis helps to keep the body as normally as possible .

Without dialysis , salts and other metabolic waste products will accumulate in the blood and poison the body .

However dialysis isn’t a cure for Kidney diseases or other problems affecting the Kidneys . Different treatments may also be needed to address these concerns .

SWIFT System

SWIFT Stands for “Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication”. once we send money to one living on the opposite side of the globe the local bank is connected to a worldwide messaging system called SWIFT.

It doesn’t hold funds or manage accounts on behalf of consumers. it’s a sort of financial messaging system.

The financial messaging services went board  from1977. The Telex Technology , which was widely employed by banks to speak long ago. Technology has advanced during recent years and also the competition has emerged.

What do banks use to communicate ?

SWIFT is that the system that banks use to securely send messages to every other.

It is one among the key pillars of the financial world, connecting over 11000 member banks in some 200 countries and territories globally. Trillions of dollars’- worth of currency are sent across borders every single day and it’s largely due to the messages sent by SWIFTS.

Banking system uses a code called “SWIFT Code” which consists of 8 to 11 characters. Bank Code + Country Code + Location Code + Branch Code.

Recently SWIFT announced partnership with MICROSOFT. this is often a cloud native proof of concept to host SWIFT Infrastructure and enable cloud native payment transfers on Microsoft Azure.

SWIFT has been thrown into the spotlight with the Russian invasion of Ukraine, when numerous Russian and Belarussian banks were faraway from the SWIFT network as a part of economic sanctions. This essentially means Bank’s ability to conduct financial transactions on a world scale has been disrupted.

Can see that within the cross-border payments, it came to be slow and expensive.

Also note that SWIFT isn’t the sole system for international transactions. Russia has its system for transfer of monetary messages or SPFs , serving 400 users as on February 2021. Twenty three of the users were foreign banks. The people’s bank of China also has the Cross- Border interbank payment system, or CIPS. By 2019 it reached over 3000 banks directly and indirectly, across 167 countries and in vast regions.

A company called Ripple provides cross-boarder payment service by using distributed ledger technology. It boasts superior transfer speed and lower transaction costs. But the corporate claims to possess signed up just quite 100 financial institutions.

Alternate networks like cryptocurrencies and blockchain technologies are advancing.

Block chain technology : a ditributed ledger technology (DLT) makes the history of any digital asset. This technology records the provenance of a digital asset .

Blockchain are often described as * Collection of records * within which data stored in blocks, each block linked with one another, * Strongly proof against alteration and * Protected using encryption.

Cryptocurrencies are a kind of digital or virtual currency. Cryptocurrencies are resistant to counterfeiting, don’t require a central authority. Protected by strong and sophisticated encryption algorithms. Transaction details are permanently inscribed within the blocks.

This records also holds the amount of bitcoins each of the account holder holds their own. A hacker won’t be able to alter the info within the blockchain because * each user incorporates a copy of the ledger and * the information within the blocks are encrypted by complex algorithms. All of this can be made possible with the assistance of blockchain technology.

Caroline Malcolm, who heads international policy at blockchain data company chain analysis acknowledges that, ” a legacy system like SWIFT is difficult to detach from. But there are certain capabilities and features in blockchain based system that cannot be matched by traditional systems. “

She said in an interview ” Blockchain allows people to carry their own funds and control that in a very divert way”.

Time will tell if newcomers can dethrone the SWIFT.

Blockchain Technology

Block chain technology is a decentralized data management technology.

Blockchain technology uses composer modeling language. System devoloping front end ( client ) applications using composer API.

It is a distributed ledger technology (DLT) makes the history of any digital asset. This technology records the provenance of a digital asset.

Blockchain technology is the brainchild of Satashi Nakamoto (Pseudonym of Inventer of cryptocurrency) , which enables digital information to be desrupted. A network of computing nodes makes up the blockchain.

Blockchain are often described as * Collection of records.*In which data stored in blocks, each block linked with one another. *Strongly proof against alteration.* Protected using encryption.

Blockchain and other crypto currencies and their wallets are created by computer experts , without taking permission from any government or centre.

Durability, robustness, success rate, transparency, incorruptibility are enticing characteristics of blockchain.

By design Blockchain could be a decentralized technology which is employed by a world network of the pc to manage Bitcoin transactions easily.

Many new business applications will end in the usage of Blockchain like crowd funding, Smart Contracts, Supply chain auditing etc.

Bitcoin and Blockchain concepts have applications in business situations.Building compelling Blockchain applications is finished by using the Ethereum Blockchain.

Moving towards application point of view, one should devolope a strong grasp of core Blockchain platforms, understand what Bitcoin is and the way it works , should learn key vocabulary and ideas commonly used when discussing Blockchain and understand why engineers are motivated and creating technologies using Ethereum.

Designing, testing and deploying secure smart Contracts are done usually by using latest versions of Ethereum development tools. Developing hyper ledger Blockchain applications are done by using composer frame work.

Leverage composer rest server to style web based solutions. Blockchain Designing Hyperledger fabric composer business networks. Here we’ve to grasp actuality, purpose and capabilities of Ethereum and solidity.

By inherent design , the info on a blockchain is unable to be modified , which makes it legitimate disruptor for industries like payments , cybersecurity and healthcare .

The technology is unalterable and transparent through the utilization of decentralization and cryptographic hashing.

Blockchain is more complicated than a Google Doc , but the analogy is apt because it illustrates these critical ideas of technology .

Bocks : Every chain consists of multiple blocks and each block has these basic elements.

1) The data in the block 2) A 32-Bit whole number called a nonce . The nonce is randomly generated when a block is created , which then generates a block header hash. 3) The hash Is a 256-bit number wedded to the nonce . It must start with huge number of zeroes . (ie. Be extremely small )

Miners :Blockchain “mining” is a metaphor for the computational work that nodes in the network undertake in hopes of earning new tokens. In reality, miners are essentially getting paid for their work as auditors. They are doing the work of verifying the legitimacy of Bitcoin transactions.

Crypto is one of the main application field of blockchain.

Cryptocurrencies are a kind of digital or virtual currency.Crypto currencies are proof against counterfeiting, don’t require a central authority.Protected by strong and sophisticated encryption algorithms.Transaction details are permanently inscribed within the blocks.

Blockchain records for crypto also holds the amount of bitcoins each of the account holder holds their own. A hacker won’t be ready to alter the info within the blockchain because * each user features a copy of the ledger.* the info within the blocks are encrypted by complex algorithms. All of this is often made possible with the assistance of blockchain technology.

Every user within the bitcoin network has two keys.

Public Keys : address that everybody within the network knows of.

Private Keys : Unique address that only the user has knowledge of.

Different Cryptocurrencies use different HASHING Algorithms.

BITCOIN : SHA256

ETHEREUM : ETHASH

Blockchain technology has applications in Medical records, E-Notary, Collecting taxes.

As an example Walmart uses the technology of blockchain for supply chain management. In each step from farm to supermarket blocks are used and within which data encrypted. (Farm>>Storage>>Transportation>>Processing>>Distribution Centre>>Supermarket ).

And if any error happened in supply chain, it is easy to determine where the failure occurred and can be corrected easily.

Leading Oil Producing Countries Of The World

Oil is the most efficient source of energy in the world today. There is major oil deposits in South West Asia, U.S.A., Soviet Union, Europe and the North Sea, respectively. Petroleum and natural gas and their products are the most important commodities in international trade today.

It is a global industry, wherein prices are reported almost exclusively in international terms. South West Asia has largest deposit of petroleum and natural gas. The first oil well was dug near Titusville ( Pennsylvania ) north of Pittsburg. Subsequently oil was found in Romania and Russia, near Caspian Sea-Baku ( Azerbaijan ). At present over 50 per cent of the oil is found in the countries of South-West Asia. The leading oil-producing countries of this region are Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, UAE, Qatar, Bahrain, Oman and Abu Dhabi.

The oil producing countries raised the price of petroleum rapidly in 1974 which led to energy crisis in the world.

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries ( OPEC ) - was established in 1960. OPEC Headquarters is in Vienna , Ausria.

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The OPEC countries include

1. Angola, 2.Algeria, 3.Iran, 4.Iraq, 5.Kuwait, 6.Indonesia, 7.Libya, 8.Nigeria, 9.Qatar, 10.Saudi Arabia, 11.UAE, 12.Venezuela. The other oil exporting countries include Mexico and Russia.

Role of OPEC is to co ordinate and unify the petroleum policies of its member countries and ensure the stabilization of oil markets in order to secure an efficient , economic and regular supply of petroleum to countries

Natural Gas : Natural gas is one of the important source of energy. Natural gas burns clean and is easy to use, and relatively cheap to buy. Its storage and distribution is, however complicated. It is found either separately or with crude oil.

The leading producers of natural gas are United States followed by Russia, Iran, Canada, Qatar, China, Norway, Australia, etc. So far as the consumption of natural gas is concerned, USA followed by Russia, China and Iran.

In USA major natural gas deposits lie in Arkansas, California, Colorado, Houston, Indiana, Kansas, Louisiana, Montana, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Texas, and West Virginia. In Europe, North Sea, Italy, Germany, France, Poland, Romania, and Ukraine have rich deposits of natural gas. The distribution of important mineral resources of Australia includes natural gas and petroleum. Australia, a country with small population, is quite endowed with coal, iron-ore, copper, gold, silver, lead, uranium, platinum, tin, and zinc. Australia is one of the important exporters of basic minerals and energy resources.

Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG): As we know LPG is the main source of energy for cooking and have other uses also. LPG mainly constitute of mixture of isoprene and butane . LPG has very wide variety uses mainly used for cylinders across many different markets as an efficient fuel container in the agricultural , recreation , hospitality , calefaction , construction sailing and fishing sectors .It can serve as fuel for cooking , central heating and to water heating and it is a particularly cost effective and efficient way to water heat off-grid homes . Around 60% of the Liquified Petroleum gas comes from the extraction of natural gas and oil from the earth. The other 40% is produced through the refining of crude oil , ie. fractional distillation of crude oil using an LPG manufacturing process (LPG production process). 

History of War of American Independence

The American revolutionary war happened in the years from 1765 to 1783. It was a colonial revolt for independence from Great Britain .

In North America, British people had established 13 colonies on the West Coast of ocean. After the Seven Year war, the influence of the French in America was ended. While the British Mercantilism or Mercantile capitalism created an environment of resentment among the white Americans, the Seven Year War created conditions, which became the immediate trigger for the War of American Independence.



Whenever Britain needed Money they’d imposed tax. Tax on Paper , Tea ,Oil etc.

In the year 1764 – BRITAIN Introduced Sugar Act. Forcing the Colonies to import Sugar exclusively from Britain and pay duties on them .The Sugar Act also imposed new taxes on other imported products, like wine, coffee, and fabric, and strictly regulated the export of lumber and iron, than the foremost demanded commodities produced within the colonies

Later in March 22, 1765 came stamp act .When Britain passed the stamp act , imposing a tax on legal documents, newspapers, even playing cards, this was the primary taxation on the American colonists , and is hotly resisted. A successful American campaign to own the act repealed gave Americans confidence that they’ll avoid future taxes likewise.

Members of American colonial society argued the position of ” No taxation without representation ” starting with the Stamp Act congress in 1765. they rejected the authority of the British parliament to tax them because they lacked members in the governing body.

Protests steadily escalated to the Boston Massacre in 1770 and the burning of the Gaspee Rhode island in 1772.( Gaspee affair 1772.)

700 troops marched from Boston to Massachusets by order of British Major to fight patriots.

Tea act of 1773 had forced colonies to shop for tea exclusively from East Indian tea company and taxed on tea. December 16th 1773 happened a rebellion called Boston party, during which patriots destroyed a consignment of taxed tea, throwing to sea. British troops back fired to Boston by the Locals.

British people responded by closing port, ( Boston port Act : Closed the port of Boston until Boston agreed to pay the East Indian company for the Dar-mouth Cargo. Boston wouldn’t import any foreign goods or export to other nations.)

Then followed with a series of legislative acts which effectively rescinded Massachusetts Bay colony’s rights of self-government and caused the opposite colonies to rally behind Massachusetts in late 1774.(Massachusetts Government Act : Members of the legislature were to be appointed by the king rather than being popularly elected. This was by revoking the Massachusetts charter of 1691. Forbade town meetings that the governor had not given permissions.)

Administration of justice Act : No royal official committing a law-breaking can be trialed in Massachusetts. Made it more likely that soldiers would flee with violence against citizens.

Administration of justice Act : No royal official committing a capital offense could be trialed in Massachusetts. Made it more likely that soldiers would get away with violence against citizens.

Quartering Act : Colonists must provide food and housing for British soldiers on demand. Robbed citizens of the right to privacy and security in their own homes.

Quebec Act : Passed later in 1774. Changed the system of government for Canada ; disbanded representative assembly and revoked the right to trial by jury.

The patriots set up their own alternate government to better co-ordinate their resistance efforts against great Britain ; other colonists preferred to remain aligned to the crown and were known as Loyalists or Tories. First continental congress held on 5th September to 26th October (1774 ).

Tensions erupted into battle between Patriot militia and British regulars when the king’s army attempted to capture and destroy colonial military supplies at Lexington and concord on April 19, 1775. The conflict then developed into a global war, during which the patriots ( and later their French , Spanish and Dutch allies ) fought the British and loyalists in what became known as the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783) . Each of the thirteen colonies formed a provincial congress that assumed power from the old Colonial governments and suppressed Loyalism, and from there they built a continental Army under the leadership of General George Washington .

April 19, 1775
The first shots of the Revolutionary War were fired at Lexington and Concord in Massachusetts. The news of the bloodshed rockets along the eastern seaboard, and thousands of volunteers converge—called “Minute Men”—on Cambridge, Mass. These are the beginnings of the Continental Army.

Washington took command of the American army, on 3rd July 1775.

The continental army forced the redcoats out of Boston in march 1776, but that summer the British captured and held Newyork City and its strategic harbor for the duration of the war.

The continental congress determined King George’s rule to be tyrannical and infringing the colonists’ rights as Englishmen , and they declared the colonies free and independent states on July 2 , 1776.

The patriot leadership professed the political philosophies of liberalism and republicanism to reject monarchy and aristocracy, and they proclaimed that all men are created equal.

July 1776

In July 4, 1776 States of America formed.
The Declaration of Independence is adopted by the Second Continental Congress. Following a decade of agitation over taxes and a year of war, representatives make the break with Britain. King George III isn’t willing to let his subjects go without a fight, and loyalist sentiment remains strong in many areas. Americans’ primary allegiance is to their states; nationalism will grow slowly.

American Constitution starts with We the People. There are three regions British Canada, Under Spain , and region under USA.

George Washington , addressing the continental army , August 27,1776. – “The time is now near at hand which must probably determine whether American are to be freemen or slaves ; whether they are to have any property they can call their own ; whether their houses and farms are to be pillaged and destroyed , and themselves consigned to a state of wretchedness from which no human efforts will deliver them. The fate of unborn millions will now depend , under God, on the courage and conduct of this army. Our cruel and unrelenting enemy leaves as only the choice of brave resistance , or the object submission. We have , therefore , to resolve to conquer or die. “

The patriots unsuccessfully attempted to invade Canada during the winter of 1775-76, but successfully captured a British army at the battle of Saratoga in October, 1777,and the French entered the war as allies of the United states as a result. (Battle of Saratoga : American side 90 killed. British side 440 killed.)

.

Battle of Saratoga: Britsh Setback

October 17, 1777
General John Burgoyne’s attempt to separate the rebellious New England colonies from those farther south ends in a spectacular failure. The surrender of 6,000 British regulars at Saratoga will shock London and help induce France to enter the war on the American side.

The war later turned to the American South were the British under leadership of Charles Cornwallis captured an army at Charleston, South Carolina in early 1780 but failed to enlist enough volunteers from loyalists civilians to take effective control of the territory while fighting patrisons. A combined American-French force captured a second British Army at Yorktown in the fall of 1781, effectively ending the war in North America.

The treaty of Paris , signed September 3, 1783, formally ended the conflict, confirming the new nation’s complete separation from the British Empire. Treaty of Paris in 1783.
Then Colony Under direct rule of Britain,

The united states took possession of nearly all the territory east of the Mississippi river and south of the great lakes, with the British retaining control of Canada and Spain taking Florida.

Among the significant results of the revolution was the creation of a new constitution of the United States of America. The new constitution established a relatively strong federal national government that included an executive , a national judiciary , and a bicameral congress that represented states in the senate and the population in the house of representatives. The revolution also resulted in the migration of around 60000 loyalists to other British territories, especially British North America ( Canada ).

Basics of Economics

Economics is divided into two broad categories. * Microeconomics and * Macroeconomis

Microeconomics – Study of individual decisions taken by bussiness , House holders , Workers etc. Microeconomics and Macroeconomics are complementary to one another.

Macroeconomics – Focuses on the study of economics taken by countries and governments and assesses the economy as a full .

Deals with issues like inflation , growth , inter-country trades , unemployment etc. it’s more sort of a top-down approach where the country is analyzed first and subsequently industry and businesses .The most common Macroeconomics factors are Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ) , Inflation ,Government debt , business cycles etc.

Microeconomics is comparable to bottom-up approach where businesses must be analyzed first followed by industry and country .

Mixed economy refers to a financial set-up where public enterprise further as private enterprise both co-exists.

Command economy, on the opposite side, the govt. regulates the market or owns the key industries. Production and sales of products are determined by the govt. Cuba and North Korea are a number of the few countries with a command economy.

Closed Economy is that economy during which neither imports nor exports occur therein particular country. As the name suggests the country provides the consumers with everything they have from within the country’s economy.

An economic boom is that the expansion and peak phases of the fluctuation, it is also referred to as upswing , upturn and a growth period . During a boom, key economic indicators will rise. Gross domestic product which measures a nation’s economic output, increases.

ECONOMIC RECESSION :

Economic recession may be a period of general economic decline and is often among a call in the stock exchange, a rise in unemployment, and a decline within the housing market. Generally a recession is a smaller amount severe than a depression.

ECONOMIC DEPRESSION :

Depression could be a sustained future downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. it’s more severe economic downturn than a recession , which could be a slowdown in economic activity over the course of a standard variation. Depressions are characterized by their length , by abnormally large increase in unemployment, falls within the availability of credit, shrinking output as buyers dry up and suppliers reduce on production and investment, more bankruptcies including sovereign debt defaults, significantly reduced amounts of trades and commerce ( especially international trade ) , additionally as highly volatile relative currency value fluctuations ( often thanks to currency devaluations ) .

Price deflation , financial crisis and bank failures also are common elements of a depression that don’t normally occur during a recession.

ECONOMIC RECOVERY :

Recovery is that the phase of fluctuation following a recession, during which an economy regains and exceeds peak employment and output levels achieved before downturn.

INFLATION :

Inflation occurs when the costs of products and services increase over time. Inflation cannot be measured by a rise within the cost of 1 product or service, or perhaps several products or services.

Rather, inflation may be a general increase within the overall price index of the products and services within the economy. Therefore, the short term measure to counter inflation is to extend the costs of general goods.

Inflation and economic process are parallel lines and may never meet. Inflation reduces the worth of cash and makes it difficult for the people. Inflation and economic process are incompatible, due to the previous affects all sectors as indicated by CPI or Consumer indicant.

A zero rate of inflation obtains necessarily in an exceedingly year where the annual rate of inflation is both falling and rising in an year.

Unexpected inflation tends to harm those whose money received – in terms of wages and interest payments – doesn’t rise with inflation.

Inflation can help people who owe money which will be paid back in less valuable, inflated dollars. Low rates of inflation have relatively little economic impact over the short term. Over the medium and future, however, even low rates of inflation can complicate future planning.

High rates of inflation can muddle price signals within the short-term and stop economic process from operating efficiently.

GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT ( GDP ) :

GDP, Gross Domestic Product, measures the entire value of all final goods and services produced within the economy of a rustic during a given year. GDP provides an economic snapshot of a rustic, accustomed estimate the scale of an economy and rate of growth. GDP may be calculated in 3 ways, using expenditures, production, or incomes. It is adjusted for inflation and population to produce deeper insights. Though it has limitations, GDP may be a key tool to guide policy-makers, investors, and businesses in strategic decision-making.

The GDP Growth Rate compares the year-over-year (or quarterly) change in country’s economic output , usually expressed as a percentage rate. this measure is important for economic policy-makers because GDP growth is assumed to be closely connected to key policy targets like inflation and unemployment rates. If GDP growth rates accelerate, it’s going to be a symptom that the economy is overheating and therefore the financial institution may seek to lift interest rates. Conversely, central banks see a shrinking (or negative) GDP rate of growth (i.e. recession ) as an indication that rates should be lowered which stimulus is also necessary.