Mental diseases - gkanswers
Mental diseases

Mental diseases

Mental illness include a wide range of disorders,of thinking, emotion, and/or behavior.

There are many different types of mental illness. Mental illness can be short lived or long term. Many stress such as losing a job, getting divorced or taking too many drugs increase the risk of mental illness.


Some times it can be hard to tell the difference between mental illness and normal worry or sadness but mental illness is more severe, lasts longer and significantly affects a person’s ability to cope with life. Almost half of adults experience symptoms of mental illness at some point.

Types of Mental illness :

Mental illness is really many different disorders.

These disorders fall into broad categories including

_Schezophrenia

_Mood disorders such as being too sad ( depression ) or too excited ( mania )

_Anxiety

_Personality disorders_Obsessive_Compelsive disorders

Other mental health disorders include eating disorders, stress disorders such as PTSD and Suicidal behaviour.

What causes mental illness ?

Mental illness is probably caused by many things in combination including :

> inherited factors

>mental illness runs in families

>Life stress

>The environment and culture you live in

>health problems that affect your brain

>Many stresses such as losing a job getting divorced or taking too many drugs increase risk of mental illness

>Certain health problems that affect a baby’s brain ,such as complications during birth or a brain infection by a virus ( encephalitis ) increase the risk of mental illness later on in life

>Mental illness doesn’t occur because people are lazy or irresponsible

>Its not something people do on purpose

Schizophrenia :

This can be among the most difficult to diagnose as symptoms are complex, overlap with other disorders. They also change during its progression and are not always present in all cases. Positive Symptoms ( Excessive functions ) are- Delusions( Being controlled/persecuted)( delusions of grandeur)-Auditory hallucinations-Inappropriate affect-incoherent thought-odd behaviour

Negative symptoms ( deficit in function )

– Flat affect-

reduction in speech

– reduction of motivation

– anhedonia ( Inability to experience pleasure )

– Catalonia ( long periods of motionlessness )

A patient exhibiting several of these symptoms for extended intervals would likely recieve a diagnosis of Schizophrenia.

In causes of these disorders includes

– genetic basis( Potential is inhereted, onset is likely depends on experience and environmental factors.

Actual mechanism by which the genes act to produce the disorders, are not yet known.

Many studies have examine the link between Schizophrenia and dopamine level.Antipsychotic drugs operate by inhibiting dopamine receptors in synapsis by preventing dopamine in exhorting its effects.Cause of disorders may be associated with as many as hundred genes.

Affective disorders / Mood Disorders

Depression and Mania ;

Clinical depression is a condition that goes far beyond the clues we get from the title.

Depression is very common

>The main treatments are medicine and counselling ( talk therapy ) .

Family friends and support groups can help people cope with mental illness.

Depression

It is an experience for not a particular reason and to a degree that interferes with daily life. Mania on the other hand is a sort of like opposite the depression characterized by impulsive and overconfidence behavior and extremely high energy. Parents who experiencing alternating periods of mania and depression are said to suffer from bipolar disorder.

Causes of disorder

– Genetic basis ( Much like Schizophrenia these are clear genetic factors that contribute to the development of affective disorders.

– Stress/trauma : ( these do not enhance susceptibility ) Stress and trauma can also be responsible for the onset of depression although the y do not enhance the susceptibility towards affective disorders in those who are not predisposed towards them.

– Specific Experience ( Seasonal affective disorder – experienced only seasonally auch as in season of winter )

– Postpartum depression ( Childbirth ) Experienced some women after giving birth and also affective disorders, although they have very specific experience of causes.

-low synaptic activity-Serotonergic/noradrenergic( It is thought that the depression is generally caused by low levels of activity at Serotonergic and noradrenergic synapsis. )

Antidepressant drugs are some what successful in compating depression.

These typically fall into following categories

1. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors- Increase serotonin/norepinephrine levels by inhibiting enzymes that break them down

2. trycyclic antidepressants – block neurotransmitter reuptake and increasing their levels in synapsis.

3. Selective monoamine reuptake inhibitors.- block neurotransmitter reuptake.

4. Mood Stabilizers :- Act against depression without triggering mania.

In addition to antidepressants talk therapies such as Cognitive Behavioural Therapy are linked with significant symptom improvements in randomized clinical trials.Cognitive therapy involves understanding the links between thoughts, feelings and behaviour and correcting cognitive error and rewire once the thought pattern.

A combination of medication and therapy is considered the most effective approach to treating depression and other mood disorders.

Anxiety :

This is the Chronic fear that persists in the absence of any kind of immediate threat, which compromises daily functioning due to avoidance of fear triggering stimulae. When severe, this is considered as a psychiatric disorder.

Types of Anxiety :

1. generalized Anxiety disorders – chronic worrying

2.Phobic anxiety disorders – triggered by exposure to spesific object or situation.

3.Panic disorders – rapid onset of fear and stress symptoms. ( Panic attack )

4. Obsessive-Compulsive disorders ( OCD ) – obsessive thoughts and compulsive responses ( rituals ).

5.Post-traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD )- Pattern of distress after trauma. ( war or sexual abuse ).Treatment for all of the Anxiety Disorders, typically involves Cognitive Behavioural therapy with an exposure conponent ” which essentially means confronting the situation or stimulus that triggering the anxiety.

Treatment for Anxiety Disorders :-

  1. Benzodiazepine – Can be habit-forming

2. Selective Serotonin reuptake inhibitors ( SSRIS )- Block Serotonin reuptake

3.Psilocybin ( hallucinogenic mushrooms )
Shown promise in clinical trails but not yet FDA – approved.

Some act as agonists.Some act as inhibitors.Some act as positive allosteric modulators.

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